Once upon a time, the internet was popular with “Republican professors are not callers”, “Republican no Li Gang”, “Republican no Guo Meimei”…. …to the Republic of China to find answers, has become a habit of people. The Republic of China, known as “the old society of all evils”, seems to have gradually become “democracy”, “freedom”, “morality”. It seems that the Republic of China has gradually become synonymous with “democracy”, “freedom”, “morality”, “punishing evil and promoting good”, and even “the Chinese people have risen up”. Are these perceptions true historical facts, or are they ignorance of history?
But one thing is certain: the Republic of China has no lackeys, the literati are upright, dare to do.
Perhaps, this is exactly what the network called “Republic of China model”.
During the Republic of China, most of the literati and Confucian scholars impetuous, or unruly and unconventional, or arrogant and unrestrained speech shocked the world. Fu Sian’s life is not a party, refused to do official, he believes: professor to do official is “all for the dung heap on a flower. There was also a professor named Liu Wendian who was a contemporary of Fu Sian. Liu Wendian was famous at that time because he was fighting with Chiang Kai-shek and shouting at the table. His classic philosophy was: “The university is not a government office, and there is no need to pander to the powerful.” Professor Ma Yinchu, an economist, had a feud with Chiang Kai-shek, from which we can see a scholar’s iron backbone. Prof. Ma Yinchu had a statement that was loud and clear: “I don’t go to see Chiang Kai-shek, he wants to see me he comes by himself.”
And today, “large to academicians, small to university teachers, before college graduates, after the enterprise and institution personnel, are scrambling to jump into the ‘theft door’. There are many pseudo-intellectuals who have been stealing other people’s academic achievements to gain fame and fortune for themselves. …… The endless stream of problematic professors and ‘cultural prostitutes’ have got cartilage disease, throwing their temperament, losing their conscience, stepping on their dignity to the bottom of their feet, spitting on a mouthful of thick spit, to The priceless academic and noble intellectual temperament has been cheapened to such a point in the tide of marketization.
The famous painter Chen Danqing said, “In this piece of the establishment of people, I believe the Republic until today, see the Republic of China is still very ashamed. In terms of being upright and daring, we are not qualified to say in front of the Republicans, they are all lackeys. I see in all universities are minions, of course I myself am senior minion.”
In the Republic of China, especially during the War of Resistance, there was still a considerable degree of freedom of the press throughout the country, and there was still some room for survival and development of both privately run newspapers and independent press criticism, despite the ongoing incidents of official control of freedom of speech and publication. According to statistics, before the outbreak of the Pacific War in 1941, there were more than 200 private newspapers and news agencies that had published in Chongqing. In addition to the Communist Party’s Xinhua Daily and Mass Weekly, there were also the National Gazette, the New Journal of Current Affairs, the Southwest Daily, and countless other magazines and periodicals.
Although some journalists were persecuted by the warlords at that time, for the majority of the time, they did not suffer reprisals from the people they “attacked”. The reason for this is that most politicians at the time boasted a strong desire for democracy and freedom, and newspapers were their window of access to information, so there was a large market for freedom of expression in newspapers.
Look at these headlines that make you smile: In 1947, the gold yuan coupons were devalued greatly, the people were suffering, and the working class was in dire straits. Wuhan’s Dagang Daily once published a headline in big letters on its front page: Public education staff is not a thing (main), but it is a thing that should also increase in price! (Vice). The status of intellectuals today is indeed incomparable to that of those days!
If the Republic of China was the “golden age”, it was also the golden age of intellectuals. Lu Xun’s 15-month salary was enough to buy a three-storey compound in Beijing; Yingda’s grandfather, who was a professor, was tired of the hustle and bustle of the city, so he bought a plot of land in the suburbs of Beijing and built a villa, and later bought a Ford sedan for the convenience of travel; Liang Shiqiu’s monthly salary was 400 yuan, while Jiang Qing’s salary was only 30 yuan at the time …… Someone once said that in 1976 People’s living standard is better than in 1949, but it can’t be compared with 1936. What was said was also the treatment of intellectuals.
After Chiang Kai-shek established the Nanjing National Government in 1927, he continued to uphold the attitude of the Beiyang government in treating intellectuals. At that time, university professors were paid 400-600 yuan (equivalent to 18,000 yuan now), associate professors 260-400 yuan, lecturers 200-260 yuan, and assistant professors 100-180 yuan. At that time, the rent of a courtyard in Beijing was only 20 yuan a month, and a family of four in Beijing could maintain a normal life with 60 yuan a month, and 100 yuan in Shanghai. Therefore, it is not too much to say that the intellectuals of that time were the high-income class.
Many books or articles describing the Republic of China period lament that intellectuals of that period were a group of people who had “backbone” but were “fun”, “interesting” and deeply learned. They were sometimes as naive as children, and they often did shocking things in the world. Obviously, they could act so freely because of the tolerance of the Republican government. During the Republican era, both the Beiyang government and the national governments of Nanjing and Chongqing under Chiang Kai-shek not only treated intellectuals with courtesy, making them a high-income class, but also tried to be tolerant of those who offended them.
“If I could choose, I would like to live in the late Qing Dynasty, then it would not be far from the Republic.” Cui Yongyuan, a famous CCTV host, once teased. Zhang Yihe, historian and daughter of Zhang Bojun, founder of the Chinese Democratic League, has also said, “Mr. Hu Yaobang has a saying, what does reform mean? Reform is a step backwards. So I hope that everyone will take a step backwards, to where? To the Republic of China is good. This is very realistic, this can be done, because the Republic of China is not far from us …….”
In fact, many of those who follow the Republic of China today are aware of the imperfections of that era: “The Republic of China was a very raggedy country, not so much GDP, some people smoked big cigarettes, and some people grew big cigarettes”, “the livelihood of the Republic of China’s Three People’s Principles, the livelihood of the people got very bad, and their nation building had a lot of Problems, his army is not particularly good at fighting” …… Republic of freedom, but also the freedom of the chaotic world, no legal system to protect. However, freedom is freedom after all. Do a multiple choice question: the confinement of the heyday, the freedom of the chaos, which one do you choose?
The Republic of China period, even though the war, but still born many heroes and celebrities gentlemen! The “Republic of China” refers exclusively to the Chinese people at that time, whether dressed or talk and mannerisms, are exuding an elegant temperament.
At that time, the Republic of China, talented people, different fields of style, whether it is the country with great ambitions, or in the academic arts and culture have expertise, they all have their own charm, some can be literary and martial, some are talented and good-looking, there is a face of righteousness, so many people admire –
The first is Sun Yat-sen, the father of the Republic of China. During his early years in school, he excelled in his studies and was awarded the English grammar prize by King Kalakaua of the Kingdom of Hawaii. Educated in China and the West, he had a deep knowledge of Europe and the United States and was fluent in Cantonese, Mandarin, and English, and studied at the Chinese Western Medical College in Hong Kong. However, in order to establish and defend the ideals of the Republic of China of “nationalism, civil rights, and people’s livelihood,” he abandoned medicine for politics and fought for his entire life. To this day, Sun Yat-sen’s political will, “The revolution has not yet succeeded, comrades still have to work hard”, remains the heartfelt message of many Chinese people.
President Chiang Kai-shek (or Chiang Kai-shek in mainland China, or Chiang Chung-ching in Taiwan) was a man of stern and dignified appearance, with a powerful gaze that was not angry. As a young man, he participated in the revolution and was the first leader to successfully unify all of China and rule both mainland China and Taiwan. During the Japanese invasion of China, he led the nation to fight against Japan until victory. Although he was defeated in Taiwan and the entire Republic of China government was moved to Taiwan, he still thought a lot about the people on the other side of the Taiwan Strait, which can be seen in his books and speeches. In terms of literature, Chiang C.C. wrote well and insisted on keeping a daily diary and reflecting daily throughout his life. After his death, the sizable contents of his diary became a testimony to China’s modern history. Throughout his life, he defended national unity and traditional culture.
General Zhang Lingfu, a 1.87-meter man, was handsome and dignified, with the boldness of a soldier in his gaze. He was a talented man from Peking University who loved to specialize in history, could write poetry and lyrics, and was good at calligraphy. His writing was praised by the calligrapher Yu Youren when he saw it: “A wonder! Wonderful talent! The future generation is fearsome!” In addition, Zhang Lingfu is also proficient in military books, hobby horsemanship, with excellent military qualities. After joining the military, in the anti-Japanese battlefield many times to kill the Japanese army to lose their armor, hold their heads and run. Zhang Lingfu’s suicide note before he died in battle: “More than 100,000 bandits pounced on me, and today the situation is worsening, out of ammunition and aid, water and food are gone. I dueled with Renjie to the last bullet, drink to become a benevolent, up to the country and the leader, down to answer the people and the ministry. My old father came to the capital without seeing me. I hope he will be treated well. I hope to raise my young son. Yu Ling my wife, now I’m leaving forever! And this letter, at the time of the defeat of the war, thoughts do not see the disorder, the whole letter iron painting silver hook, profound skills, so that future generations will be praised.
General Zhang Zizhong, known as the first general of the anti-Japanese resistance, heroic, heated eyes, can be listed as one of the beautiful men of the Republic. He was a man of the Republic of China. He demanded loyalty, filial piety, benevolence and righteousness in everything, and advocated “eight no-fights”: one, when the officer was angry, he was not allowed to fight; two, when the soldier worked too hard, he was not allowed to fight; three, for new recruits, he was not allowed to fight; four, for first-time offenders, he was not allowed to fight; five, when he was sick, he was not allowed to fight; six, when the weather was too hot and too cold, he was not allowed to fight; seven, after a full meal and When hungry, no beating; eight, when sorrow and tears, no beating. He ruled the army harshly, but treated them with kindness, so that all the officers and soldiers he led were willing to live and die with him. He was praised by the people as the “living God of Guan” for his many defeats of the Japanese army. At the end of his life, he still remembered: “I die well and honorably, for the country, for the nation, and for my officers, with a peaceful conscience.” The military virtues displayed by General Zhang Zizhong moved the Japanese army, which at that time espoused militarism, and after the general’s death in battle, the Japanese army coffined his remains in good wood and the whole army saluted him. When his remains were transported back to the rear, the air force was ordered to stop air raids for one day in order to avoid hurting Zhang’s loyal bones.
Sun Liren, a famous anti-Japanese general, led the New First Army, which made a name for itself in the history of Chinese anti-Japanese resistance. As a talented son of Tsinghua University, he was a refined and elegant man, with a heroic and proud spirit, who studied in the civil engineering department of Purdue University in the United States in his early years, and later entered the Virginia Military Institute. He was the captain of the Tsinghua basketball team and was later selected as the main guard of the Chinese men’s basketball team, which won the championship in the Fifth Far Eastern Games held in Shanghai. After serving his country in the army, the brave and warlike General Sun, during the war of resistance, created a single army-level unit, the most enemy annihilation, the most extensive area recovered, the most abundant war booty, cover the construction of China-India highway open to traffic and other outstanding achievements, but also the only national army general who defeated Lin Biao from beginning to end four times in the northeast battlefield.
Li Shutong, born into wealth and privileged cultivation, studied in Japan to learn Western painting and music. He was born full of artistic cells and had his own signature for music and art works, as well as drama, poetry and calligraphy. The lyrics of the song “Farewell Song” he composed: “Outside the long pavilion, by the ancient road, the grass is blue, the evening breeze brushes the willow and the flute is broken, the sunset is beyond the mountains. The end of the world ……” is a classic song that many people are familiar with. When his career and family were in a happy place, he was determined to become a monk and devote himself to Buddhism. After becoming a monk, he abandoned all of his original artistic hobbies except for calligraphy, which he described as “simple and complete, as if it were heavenly”. One of his calligraphic works reads, “As a dream is not real, give me up and practice”, giving an answer to his relatives who opposed the monkhood and to the people who did not understand, that for him the wealth and fame in this world are like a dream, only practice is the most real.
Hu Shih was a famous scholar, poet, historian, writer and philosopher in modern times. He was one of the leaders of the New Culture Movement for his advocacy of literary improvement, and was the first scholar to advocate vernacular language and new poetry, working to overthrow the 2,000-year-old literary language. After 1949, Hu Shih, who was overseas, was preoccupied with the cultural catastrophe and the situation of intellectuals on the mainland. He served as ambassador of the Republic of China to the United States, president of National Peking University, and president of the Academia Sinica in Taiwan. He was constantly criticized by the mainland for advocating independent thinking, independent judgment, and emphasis on doubt and empirical evidence.
Mei Lanfang, a master of Peking Opera, is known worldwide for his artistic and human qualities, and has his own artistic style. Over 60 years old, he still managed to charm the women of the whole Republic. Farewell My Concubine” is a classic play of Mei Lanfang, which has been performed for a long time. His art and person are both extremely elegant. His art is elegant in that it is just the right amount of softness and rigidity, and it may not be difficult to learn, but it has charmed the whole China. His life is elegant in having a good temper, always modest and courteous, gentle and elegant. Although Mei Lanfang is an entertainer. But it is not a normal entertainer, loud name, money and a large amount of money into the account, but always clean, adhere to the artist’s original. ……
The above-mentioned people, are very good embodiment of the “Republic of paradigm”.
The so-called “Fan’er” is a kind of spirit, “Republic of Fan’er” linked to “a fun, a style, an aesthetic.” The question is, this spirit, this fun, style, aesthetics, can represent the entire Republic? In October 1933, the National Government sponsored the 5th National Games, when the women appeared in the pool in their swimming costumes, some of the old and the young on crutches of the late Qing Dynasty hurriedly left their seats and withdrew, muttering “Sin, sin, sin, women Bathing still invites people to see, really do not know that there is shame on earth.” However, Chiang Kai-shek, as the supreme ruler at that time, was influenced by his wife Song Meiling to believe in Christianity, and advocated a new life movement in the country to quit bad habits. He set an example by not smoking, not drinking, not even drinking tea; either a military uniform, a trench coat, or a long robe and coat, while wearing pants under the robe, stirrups leather shoes, holding a civilized stick. This has almost become the standard line of “Republican model”.
This combination of Chinese and Western, the old and new clothing, has become a symbol of the times.