- It’s all or nothing –
This is a typical cognitive error of perfectionists, using an extreme, black-and-white standard to evaluate themselves, like a student whose grades have always been A’s saying after getting a B on a test: I’m screwed.
- Overreduction –
The belief that once a bad thing happens, it will happen to you over and over again. For example, a shy young man gets up the courage to ask a girl out, and the girl politely declines because she has a date first. The boy then says to himself, “I’ll never ask anyone out again. No girl will ever want to date me. I will be alone and miserable all my life. “In his perception, for having been rejected once by a girl, all the ladies on earth will repeatedly and constantly reject him.
- Mental filter –
When a person is depressed, he puts on a special pair of tinted glasses, through which everything becomes negative: the terminology calls this process “selective absorption “. This is a bad habit, it will make you suffer unnecessarily.
4, emotional inference –
Take your emotions as evidence of the truth. This kind of reasoning is a misleading, because your feelings reflect your thoughts and beliefs. If they are distorted, your emotions are no longer justified. Examples of what can be used as emotional reasoning are: “I feel extinguished and hopeless, so my problems must be impossible to solve.”
- Mislabeling –
Labeling is an extreme form of overgeneralization, and mislabeling means that you have created a completely negative self-image for yourself based on the mistakes you have personally made. “I feel lacking, therefore, I must be a worthless person”.
- The “should” compulsion –
You try to motivate yourself by saying “I should do this”, ” I have to do this” to motivate yourself, this statement will make you feel a sense of pressure and resentment, and eventually you will feel apathy and lack of motivation.
- Personalization –
This distortion is the mother of all guilt! Even if there is no basis, you will assume that you are responsible for a negative event. You arbitrarily believe that what happened is your problem, and then in this case you are not responsible.