House price age education: how difficult it is to become a Shenzhener

On May 25, Shenzhen released a signal to the outside world to tighten the settlement of households. After the adjustment of academic qualifications, age and other criteria, Shenzhen may become the third hardest city in mainland China after Beijing and Shanghai to get a household. The hidden fact is that this mega-city created by a large number of foreigners in the optimization of the city’s demographic structure, control of housing prices at the same time, is likely to become only a stopover for some people. The slogan “come to be a Shenzhener” is becoming more and more remote from reality.

This is Shenzhen

To a certain extent, Shenzhen has given Guizhou people Wu Yongmei a chance to turn their lives around. 2007, she graduated from junior high school with a large bag to Longgang, Shenzhen, in a leather goods factory to open her “deep drift “journey. The first time she went to Futian, saw the high-rise buildings, it was a different picture from the countryside, “Wow! This is Shenzhen! “She also harvested love in the factory, and soon after, she started a family.

In those years, Wu Yongmei could earn 900 yuan a month, compared to her classmates working in Dongguan and Foshan at the same time, it was two or three hundred yuan higher. On the assembly line, she did the same job day after day, living a two-point life of “dormitory to factory”. The most active time in the dreary factory was when she and three to four hundred people grabbed a bathhouse after working late at night. In this way, she spent three years.

In this city of “money”, she has two identities: a beneficiary worker and a hardworking contributor.

Public data show that the 40 years of reform and opening up, Shenzhen’s GDP grew from 186 million yuan to 2.69 trillion yuan, up 13,000 times, in the first year Wu Yongmei came to Shenzhen, Shenzhen’s secondary industry (industry) added value accounted for 50.9% of the city’s gross domestic product. And at the same time, foreign “immigrants” accounted for the vast majority of workers in Shenzhen, non-resident population of 6,491,700 people, accounting for 75.3%.

The “factory boys” and “factory girls and Shenzhen were shaped by each other during this period. “My love and children were born in Shenzhen, and my worldview was formed over here, things that weren’t quite taught to me when I first came out. Wu Yongmei said. She used the term “sense of belonging” to describe her connection with the metropolis.

Around 2013, Wu Yongmei had left the assembly line and was working as a clerk in a processing plant. She planned her future: she wanted to settle down and get a public school place for her children.

In the most rapid stage of Shenzhen’s development, thousands of foreigners benefitted from the city’s open policy and flocked to the city of hope. 2016 began to attract more talents to settle in Shenzhen. The migration path for Shenzhen household registration, for ordinary youth, is mainly approved class entry and points entry. Approved class entry refers to the direct approval of household entry when the conditions of education and technology are met, while those who cannot meet the conditions of approved class entry need to apply for household entry after accumulating 100 points by completing the points table items provided by Shenzhen’s human resources department.

This also gives hope to junior high school-educated Wu Yongmei, even if they can not meet the requirements of the approved category of household registration such as education and technology, but also rely on points to obtain a Shenzhen household registration. She enrolled in a part-time college for this purpose, and that was worth 60 points.

8800 yuan of tuition, the whole 4 years, in addition to commuting to work with the children, Wu Yongmei every few days to take time to study 2-3 hours. 14 courses cumulative down, Wu Yongmei completed the various exams to get a college diploma. She also spent 1,600 yuan to hire a “household teacher” – in Shenzhen, this is a These “teachers” are backed by adult education institutions or consulting companies, and provide some help and consulting services for the foreign population to enter the household.

With other extra points, Wu Yongmei is still 5 points away from applying for household registration. The “household teacher” gave her a suggestion to take a junior economist course to make up for her score. Subsequently, she took the junior economist, according to the plan, in April 2020, when the junior economist qualification certificate in hand, she can immediately apply for household registration.

But changes happened in the meantime.

Younger and more highly educated

In January 2020, the Shenzhen Human Resources and Social Security Bureau suddenly issued a notice suspending the city’s in-service talent introduction approval type of business from February 1. This means that the window of points to enter the household will be closed.

“The epidemic well, others resume work it should also resume work. “Wu Yongmei thought so at the time.

But with the passage of time, the window was late to open. For the majority of the urgent need for points to enter the deep floating people, it was a difficult few months. In the consultation section on the official website of the Shenzhen Human Resources and Social Security Bureau, from time to time, people went up to ask questions: “When will the points account be opened. “The Shenzhen Bureau of Human Resources and Social Security replied: “Approval of the class points to enter the household business, to be adjusted to improve the policy to open. “

When will it be adjusted and perfected? The anxious Wu Yongmei called to ask the teacher of the household to ask the method. According to the recommendation of the teacher, because Wu Yongmei has already taken part-time college degree, so according to the “part-time college + intermediate title + 6 months of Shenzhen social security According to the talent introduction condition of “part-time college + intermediate title + 6 months of Shenzhen social security”, another intermediate title can be examined and approved directly instead of points for household registration.

Continue the march to the hukou. In April this year, Wu Yongmei began preparations to apply for the intermediate title of systems integration, success or failure in this move.

But the message of policy tightening suddenly came, “Shenzhen household registration into some provisions (draft for comment)” in late May issued. According to the draft, the original full-time college education bottom line requirement is now adjusted to full-time undergraduate degree in the approved category of household registration. In addition, the age range of talents with bachelor’s degree or above has also been contracted. In the past, full-time undergraduates under the age of 45 could easily enter the household, but now, this condition has been changed to under the age of 35, a full downward adjustment of 10 years.

The draft also rejects Wu Yongmei’s “part-time college + intermediate title” program, changing the educational requirements of this original program to full-time college, the previous In the previous document, the educational requirement for this program was “secondary school or above”.

Younger, more highly educated, this is the new trend of the introduction of Shenzhen talent into the household.

Liu Huihui, an Anhui native, is self-employed, an identity that also has the temperament of the city. On the eve of the 40th anniversary of reform and opening up, there were more than 1.13 million self-employed households in Shenzhen, “with less than 40% of social resources, contributing to more than 70% of the tax revenue”, the Southern Metropolis Daily” had said so in the report.

Living in Shenzhen for 17 years, Liu Huihui has the courage to enter the household than other “Shenzhen drifters”. In the early years of the door and window business in Shenzhen, in 2014 she and her husband bought a small house in Shenzhen for a total of one million, also counted as a home in Shenzhen.

In 2015, her daughter started elementary school. Most of the students in the class are the children of foreigners, Liu Huihui inquired about some of them have settled, her determination to enter the household down firmly. Similar to Wu Yongmei, in 2016, Liu Huihui enrolled in a part-time bachelor’s degree and began her attack on points-based household registration. And just as she approached March 2020 and got her diploma, she also ran into the closing of the points window.

To add to the embarrassment, she was already 40 years old. According to the current rules of Shenzhen points to enter the household, 18-35 years old non-resident can add 5 points, 35-40 years old scores do not add or subtract, and after 40 years old, every growth of 1 year old deduct 2 points.

“Twenty to thirty years old, delayed one year two years, at least the age is not over, but if I’m stuck in this year, start to overage reduction points. “Liu Huihui said.

Anxiety about the inability to enter the household is visible to the naked eye. Liu Huihui remembers going with her to take the adult undergraduate examination in hundreds of people, most of them are similar to her age. Liu Huihui spent nearly 40,000 yuan in three and a half years to get her part-time bachelor’s degree, while some people who were unlucky and not very receptive needed to keep registering, studying and taking make-up exams, spending even more time and money. A female classmate who impressed Liu Huihui hung up once for the exam, and by the time Liu Huihui met her at the examination center, she told Liu Huihui that she was taking the exam for the fifth time.

“I came to Shenzhen with some earlier years is not the same, some people can not buy a house may go to other cities, but I have bought a house in Shenzhen, and the children are so old, I can not enter at this time, and so I have this account after what use it? “Liu Huihui lamented.

The city’s values

“College + junior title = 60 points, if according to the draft opinion, your social security is a cumulative five insurance are paid …… is 75 months? That is more than 6 years, we first calculate the 6 years ……” “into the teacher “to Wu Yongmei so calculate.

This is a scene after the integral calculation figuratively. And to look at it again from a more macro perspective, when age, education, social security and these indicators are included in the points system, this set of arithmetic hooked up, is a variety of urban resources, social security.

Wu Yongmei’s son is in the fourth grade of elementary school. Because he did not get a Shenzhen household registration, Wu Yongmei’s son went to a private school from kindergarten to elementary school.

On the one hand, compared to public schools, send children to private schools to bear the economic pressure is greater, a few years ago or 4,000 yuan a year kindergarten tuition, has now risen to 6,500 yuan, and Wu Yongmei son read elementary school, the tuition is 4,500 yuan per semester, which does not include a variety of living expenses and miscellaneous school fees. This is a considerable burden for Wu Yongmei, whose monthly salary is only around 5,000 yuan.

On the other hand, the household registration obtained through points will probably be included in another points system and continue to operate.

Shenzhen began to implement the “points-based admission” policy in 2013. Specifically, the index of points includes housing, social security, household registration, etc. In primary one and junior high school, parents need to rely on points ranking for school places. In most areas, there is a big difference between the basic score of non-Shenzhen residents and Shenzhen residents.

The difference in household registration will also be reflected in the children’s big test. In 2020, for example, the high school admissions line, non-resident candidates were admitted to a total score of 3-20 points higher than resident candidates, these schools include the “four major schools “These schools include Shenzhen High School, Shenzhen Experimental School, Shenzhen Senior High School and Shenzhen Foreign Language School.

However, the tight degree system has also made the points chase meaningless. In 2019, Shenzhen’s Luohu District Education Bureau had warned parents that there would be a large shortage of public school places, and that applications from non-Shenzhen household parents who temporarily purchased and rented homes in the Luohu District would not be accepted, according to a report in the Southern Metropolis Daily.

During that time, it was an indisputable fact that Shenzhen’s basic education level was tight. Seven districts in Shenzhen, such as Futian, Longgang, Luohu, Longhua and Guangming, have issued warnings on school places.

The door is open, people are coming in, and what needs to be provided is the matching education, medical and other social resources.

“Come is Huizhou people”

Obviously, compared to settling down, in Shenzhen, the real problem is to buy a house. After several rounds of increases, the city’s average house price has ranked first among first-tier cities, leaving Shanghai and Beijing far behind.

According to the “2021 New Tier 1 City Residence Report” released by the Shell Research Institute, Shenzhen ranks first among the 10 cities with the highest house price to income ratio among 114 cities in China, with a house price to income ratio of 27.09. More specifically, the average residential family can afford a house only after 27 years without eating or drinking.

It is necessary to admit that, from the household registration policy is relaxed to the household registration policy began to tighten over the years, deep households or non-deep households are getting farther and farther away from the house in Shenzhen. In the early days of Shenzhen’s foreign propaganda “come are Shenzhen people” slogan in the network circulation was changed to The slogan “Come is Huizhou people”.

Guan Peng is the “Huizhou people” who fits the Shenzhen narrative. As a bachelor’s degree, in 2011, he graduated from the University of Wuhu, Anhui Province, went straight to Shenzhen, the University of professional learning measurement and control circuits, he did delivery and transfer work in various stalls in Huaqiang North, with a salary of only 2,500 yuan, living in Shenzhen has the largest low-cost rental housing in Baishi Zhou.

In 2014, he got married and had a child, and began to prepare to settle down to work. Soon, he easily got a Shenzhen hukou and a 15,000 yuan talent allowance on the basis of his status as an “approved type of academic talent”. In contrast he was lucky, he broke free from the rental house, did the work of e-commerce, wait until 2017, he chose to buy a house in Huizhou, next door to Shenzhen. At that time, the price of Shenzhen has been 50-60,000 yuan per square meter, while Huizhou only 10,000 yuan. After buying the property in Huizhou, he became a Shenzhener working in Shenzhen and his house in Huizhou.

Household registration and real estate separation of the twin-city model, become a lot of young people in Shenzhen helpless move. But Guan Peng also feel lucky, after all, he became a Shenzhener.

Compared to 2017, now the price of Shenzhen is a new scene. According to Anjuke Shenzhen’s data, in the price range of 20,000-30,000 yuan per unit, most of the properties recommended by the platform are from cities around Shenzhen, such as Zhongshan and Huizhou. 396 properties in the 30-50,000 range, 298 properties in the 50-80,000 range, and 218 properties above 80,000, of which 99 properties are priced at more than 100,000 per unit.

A year after graduation, working in Shenzhen, undergraduate students revealed to reporters, their future plans to live in Shenzhen for a long time, although not yet settled, but for her, the household registration problem is not difficult to solve. Can not avoid is the price of housing. “I know I basically can’t buy a house in Shenzhen by myself in this life. ” she said.

For others, the story of points arithmetic for Shenzhen households doesn’t stop there. After the threshold is raised, non-graduate students, as well as undergraduates over 35 years old to settle in Shenzhen, will also be involved in the points system. Currently, 68.7% of Shenzhen’s resident population is educated below college level.

After the tightening of the approved class entry policy, the Shenzhen Bureau of Human Resources and Social Security also publicly solicited opinions on the implementation of the points entry class talent introduction, changing the original payment of pension insurance to 3 points per year and 1 point per year for other types of insurance to 0.06 points per month for each type of insurance, capped at 45 points. In addition, the points into the household will also use the “points ranking” approach, according to the applicant’s points in descending order, according to the amount of the current year to determine the household personnel.

After the policy is implemented, the competition for points will be more intense.

“Now the total score has increased, but also to fight social security years, the difficulty is also greater. “Liu Huihui said. Her circle of friends, there are Shenzhen’s “indigenous”, but also outwardly moved into the new Shenzhen people, the daily get together basically does not involve household registration status. “Not xenophobic”. To a certain extent, 17 years of experience in Shenzhen makes her and Shenzhen incomparable fit, but in the household registration level, she is still a distance from the “Shenzhen people”.

And Wu Yongmei has already expected that household registration is slim. She intends to try to take the senior title after the intermediate title in November this year, that has 125 points, but the tuition fee of 10,800 yuan makes her some hesitation. Her husband, who did not squeal about the title exam in the past, finally started to complain: “I should have known it would be like this. “

Today, she can still remember the first time she took the bus to Shenzhen, see the bus stop sign says “come to Shenzhen people”. “We do the assembly line, to be frank, is the bottom, but we are also creating value for the company, paid taxes. Now I want to listen to this sentence, I want to weep, too young, thought there is a residence permit is Shenzhen people. Now it’s so embarrassing for me. “Wu Yongmei said.

As one of the builders who have been working in Shenzhen for many years, Wu Yongmei intends to really can not evacuate here.