Unlike the few masters under The Communist Party, the Republic of China produced a group of Chinese and Western masters who, according to some books describing the period, were “backbone”, “fun”, “interesting” and knowledgeable. They are sometimes as innocent as children, and they often do amazing things about the world. It was thanks to the toleration of the Republican government that they were able to do so “arbitrarily”.
At that time, both the northern warlord government and the Nationalist governments in Nanjing and Chongqing under Chiang Kai-shek maintained a certain respect for the personality, knowledge and belief of liberal intellectuals. The intellectual approach to government is: I criticize you when you’re wrong, and I support you when you’re right. There is no doubt that the fundamental reason for forming this mutual trust relationship lies in the sincerity of the Government of the Republic of China.
However, the policy of killing and annihilation adopted after the establishment of the Communist Party of China not only made the masters of the Republic of China in mainland suffer persecution one by one and even die tragically, but also completely bent the backbone of intellectuals. It is also inevitable that there will be no more masters in Mainland China after 1949, because the soil for the emergence of masters has been completely destroyed. This series tells the story of several masters who were persecuted by the Communist Party of China. This one is about Chen Yinque, the most famous Master of Chinese studies in the Republic of China.
The name Chen Yinque was very popular in the Republic of China. Without a diploma, he is employed as a professor at Tsinghua University, where he is one of the “big three”, along with Liang Qichao and Wang Guowei, and his classes are often crowded with students from other universities in Beijing. Known as the “professor’s professor”, he is knowledgeable and knows more than 20 languages. His knowledge is “only one person in nearly three hundred years”, but he is low-key and modest. Although he devoted himself to learning, he never lost his pride. The spirit of “give me liberty or give me death” ran through his life, and he was probably the first Chinese to read das Kapital in the original German.
Beijing offers terms for the appointment
According to the book Chen Yinque and Fu Sinian published in the mainland, Chen Was doomed from then on when he was unable to leave the mainland for various reasons before the establishment of the Communist Party of China in 1949. He taught at Lingnan University before it was merged into Sun Yat-sen University. From then on, he remained a professor at Sun Yat-sen University and spent his last twenty years there.
In 1953, MAO Zedong, who was “fond of history”, decided to set up a historical research committee representing the central Committee of the Communist Party of China. The committee consisted of “red scholars” such as Chen Boda, Guo Moruo, Fan Wenlan and Ragged Zens. In October of the same year, at MAO’s proposal, the Institute of History decided to add three more institutes to the Chinese Academy of Sciences: Guo Moruo, Chen Yinke, and Fan Wenlan.
After the appointment, Both Guo Moruo and Fan Wenlan went to work immediately, but Chen Yinque was not moved. At that time, from time to time there are visitors from Beijing to guangzhou to persuade Mr. Chen, including its footed, associate professor, department of history, wang 篯 at Peking University. At that time, wang 篯 with two letters, one is written by the Chinese Academy of Sciences dean guo moruo, li siguang autograph, vice President of the letter is written.
Told to persuade his wang Chen yinque 篯 said: “a scholar, there should be no” in such and such doctrine or so-and-so thought “under the guidance of the attributive, all have the attributive are not really learning.” “Do not have marxist-Leninist views before you study academia. Do not study politics.” “I have no objection to the present regime. I read the original das Kapital in Switzerland three years ago. But I don’t think marxist-Leninist views should be preserved before studying academia. The people I want to invite and the apprentices I want to bring must all have free thinking and independent spirit. No, not my students.”
Chen Yinque, who advocated academic freedom, also proposed two conditions for his appointment. First, he allowed the Institute of Middle Ancient History not to follow Marxism-Leninism and study politics. Ask MAO Gong (that is, MAO Zedong) or Liu Gong (that is, Liu Shaoqi) to give a certificate of permission, as a shield. Of course, the Communist Party of China did not agree to Chen’s two conditions, and the trip to Beijing ended in failure.
At that time, a student persuaded Chen Yinque not to do so, but he said: “I don’t have to tell lies to the Communist Party. I just want to leave a pure land for the academic field. Since I made the memorial tablet for Wang Guowei, The purpose of academic freedom has remained unchanged for more than 20 years.
After that, Chen Yinque was criticized, but under the care of Tao Zhu, the first secretary of Central South, he lived a quiet life in Sun Yat-sen University.
See through the dangers of Marxism-Leninism
Chen Yinque read Das Kapital in German in his early years while studying in Europe. During the War of Resistance against Japan, Chen Yinque talked about communism and the Communist Party on his deathbed in Chengdu with shi Quan, a graduate student of Yenching University under his guidance. He said, “In fact, I’m not afraid of communism or the Communist Party, I’m just afraid of the Russians. In the year of the 1911 revolution, I was in Switzerland, and when I read about it in a foreign newspaper, I immediately went to the library to borrow Das Kapital. Because when we talk about revolution, the most important thing is Marx and communism, which is obvious in Europe. I have been to many countries in the world, Europe and The United States, Japan, but not to Russia, only in Europe and the United States have I seen the Russian exiles, and I have read many descriptions of the Russian Czarist detectives, they are very fierce, very brutal, I think very terrible.”
Chen Yinque, who thought the Russians were terrible, did not realize that from the moment he stayed in mainland China, the Chinese Communist Party, with The Russians as its teacher, was within his reach. Around 1950, Chen Yinque wrote a poem called “Jing Shi shi” to express his understanding of the dangers of Marxism-Leninism. It said:
Empty through the history of corruption, such as the stream carved gloomy miserable.
Jing Lu on open book language, said gua laugh Qin Confucian.
This poem by Chen Yinque quotes the classics, which is really hard to understand. After several scholars mulled the textual research, finally understood the true meaning of the poem.
The “virtual sutra” in the first sentence refers to the concise Course on the History of the Communist Party of China (CPC), published from 1938 until Stalin’s death and reprinted 300 times in the Soviet Union with a total distribution of 42 million copies. It has been called “the Encyclopedia of Marxism-Leninism”. The “History of corruption” usually refers to the Historical Records written by Sima Qian, a historian in the Western Han Dynasty, after being executed for corruption. In the poem, it is implied that Soviet scholars wrote the “virtual classics” under severe torture and coercion. Turning black and white, it glorifies the Communist party’s collectivization and purges of the 1930s, and glorifies Stalin’s crimes of suppressing and exiling tens of millions of old Party members, cadres and peasants. “Xike” refers to Chen Zhongzi’s “harsh” behavior and insinuates that Marxs thought is cruel to people. It is obvious that Chen Yinque thought the marxist-Leninist theory of class struggle was very harsh and terrible.
The second sentence, “Lu on the Opening book”, refers to the first sentence of the opening book of the Analects of Confucius, “Confucius said: It is not a matter to learn and practice”. All of a sudden, all the teachers and students in the university spoke with one voice. “To say qin Ru is to say that the intellectuals of the time were ignorant of the fact that the Communist Party had swept them away.
Because marxism-Leninism’s dogma imprisoned the freedom of individual life and thought, because its intellectual heroes were caught up in a ruler’s mystery. It can be said that the poem “Jing Shi shi” is Chen Yinque’s opinion on the later prevailing political study. Naturally, the reason for writing this poem is to avoid unnecessary political impact.
The reality then, as described in Chen Yinque’s poem, was that in the early 1950s, after the overall ruling of the Communist Party had been decided, the intellectual community began to reform its thinking. Since late September 1951, the COMMUNIST Party of China (CPC) has forced college and primary school teachers, staff members and students above junior high school level to confess their history and purge them of counter-revolutionaries, using methods derived from the Communist Party rectification movement of the Yan ‘an Period, such as fatiguing tactics, meeting rituals and group pressure. Some intellectuals succumbed to pressure, committed suicide or fled the mainland, while many more accepted their allegiance through ideological retraining campaigns to the Communist Party and MAO Zedong. From then on, people would call Him Ma Li and take pride in quoting the original works of Ma Li and MAO Zedong. The movement was temporarily suspended by the Korean War, but a few years later the Communist Party launched an even bigger campaign against intellectuals: the anti-rightist movement.
In 1957, Chen Yinke wrote to his friend Liu Mingshu: “My younger brother is still engaged in writing recently, but he has abandoned the old techniques and used new methods and materials as a game experiment (poems from the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and notes on local annals, etc.). Solid is different from the old rules of Qianjia textual research, also is not the new theory of Tai Shi Gong chongxu real people. Imagine taishi Gong and Chongxu real people are old antiques, how suddenly become “new said”?
Mr. Yu Yingshi, a contemporary historian, saw the true meaning of this: Taishi company is the company “ma” qian, chongxu real person is the “row” imperial bandit. Mr. Chen actually said that he would never use “Marxism-Leninism” in his study of history. The reason why Chen Yinque became Chen Yinque! Thus, we can also understand the profound cognition of marxism-Leninism in the “Jing Shi shi”, a poem written by Mr. Chen.
Chen Yinque and Fu Sinian also reveals Chen’s last years and his tragic death.
After the Cultural Revolution broke out in 1966, rebels at Sun Yat-sen University turned on the blind man. Chen yinque from big size “capitalist roader” and “bourgeois” reactionary academic authority, have increased by seal for the “ghostly”, “feudal remnants”, “capitalist roader” unrepentant, at the same time being branded as splurging state property, enjoy treatment of senior care, non of us imperialism drugs don’t eat, mean to insult for the therapy of young female nurses, etc. The “culprit”.
As Tao Zhu was knocked to the ground, the situation of Chen Yinque, who had been under his protection, became very difficult. Assistant Huang Xuan is chased away, 3 nurses are removed, salary is stopped, deposit is frozen, building 1 of southeast area of the campus that Chen jia lives is covered by big character poster, look like a huge white coffin from far away, the hope is horrifying and thrilling.
To add to the horror, the big-character posters were pasted from the outside of the building to the inside. The front door, wardrobe, bedside table and even Chen Yinque’s clothes were covered with big-character posters. In the face of the scene, Mrs Tang Yun had issued a “man was not dead, was first KaiDiao” fury.
The crazy rebels also plundered the Chen family’s possessions on a large scale. All the books that Chen Yinque had accumulated in the latter half of his life were seized and the manuscripts were looted. Tang Yun ancestors left a little commemorative jewelry and Chen yinque make appears and, more than 20 years war get away with preserved abducted grandfather you may also contact. The Chens lost all their possessions.
In order to prove the truth of the saying “Chen Yinque has an amazing memory”, which was spread in the campus of CUHK, the rebels dragged him out of bed and forced him to recite MAO’s sayings. If he refused to recite or recited one of his sayings incorrectly, he was scolded and beaten.
In order to persecate Chen to death, the rebels came up with a poisoned plan: first, they hung loudspeakers of several big names behind the Windows of Chen’s residence so that they could listen to the angry voices of the revolutionary masses. Blind, unable to distinguish between cattle and horses, and suffering from severe insomnia and heart disease, Chen Yinque suddenly heard several “monsters” growling in her ears all day long, and immediately fell into bed with her head in her hands.
Excited, the rebels stepped up their efforts and moved the loudspeakers indoors, tying them to Chen’s bed and playing them. Chen and his wife did not hear a few words, that is, the world turned upside down, both heart disease recurrence, foaming at the mouth, fell to the ground.
In The first month of 1969, Chen Yinque’s family was evicted and moved to no. 50, southwest Campus of CUHK, a one-story house with drafty sides. At this time, Chen yinque was too weak to eat, so he had to take some liquid food such as soup. Occasionally, some friends and relatives came to visit him secretly and found him lying on the sick bed, unable to speak, but with tears pouring out of his eyes.
In the last moments of her life, the couple, who were deeply in love with each other, often wept together, lamenting the misery of their fate. On the afternoon of May 5, 1969, lying exhausted in bed, Chen Yinque was once again forced to give an oral explanation to the authorities. Chen Yinque once said, “I am now on death row.” At the end of the sentence, tears ran down my cheeks and I couldn’t stop talking.
Chen Yinque died of heart failure at 5:30 a.m. on October 7, 1969. After a month of November 21, tang Yun also died, go with her husband.
According to Gan Shaosu, Liang Zongdai’s wife who lived at Sun Yat-sen University at that time, in her memoir Zong Dai and Me, “At that time, the whole group and their families were especially afraid of the high-sounding horn. When they heard the high-sounding horn, they were afraid, because the Red Guards often used the high-sounding horn to announce a meeting and ordered people to come out to protest and march. And to go out once is to die a little. Chen Yinque, a first class teacher in the history department, is blind and timid. When he hears his name called from the loudspeaker, he shakes all over and weeps his pants. And so, at last, I was scared to death.”
Three hundred years to see the master of Chinese studies so far, it is really a great misfortune of The Chinese literary circle! How sinful the Communist Party is!