An individual name cannot be written in the Constitution

From the middle of August 1966, the CPPCC ceased all its work activities, and government officials made revolutions of their own, with the struggle between the two factions in full swing. In June 1968, the military began to take charge. The cadres of the CPPCC organs first carried out campaigns in the organs. In the following year, most of the cadres were sent to the Shayang Wuqi Cadre School in Hubei. For more than three years, some of the CPPCC members who were directly paid salaries but had no actual jobs were put in prison by the gang of four, a few were supervised at the government offices or went to the May 7th Cadre school, and some stayed at home. Liang Shuming was always at home except for the red Guards. He practiced boxing and took a walk in the park every day. When he had no books to read, he read newspapers and materials carefully and was concerned about the development and evolution of the current situation. After “On the Similarities and Differences between Confucianism and Buddhism”, he set to work on “Human Heart and Life”. In the second half of 1970, the military representatives of the CPPCC decided to resume the study of the groups directly under the CPPCC twice a week. The number of participants was much smaller than in the past. Only more than ten members, such as Du Yu-ming, Song Xi-lian, Fan Hanjie, Pu Jie, Liang Shuming, Yu Shude and Wang Kejun, participated in the study, and yu Shude was still the group leader. Shortly after the resumption of study, military representatives personally announced the group, said the fourth session of the People’s Congress will be held, it is of great significance, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the Central Committee of the Cultural Revolution have drawn up on the draft constitution, now issued for your internal study, discussion, welcome to put forward suggestions on revision.

Jun’s remarks made the CPPCC members, who had been ignored in recent years, feel warm. But the situation at that time, Lin Biao, Jiang Qing abuse is flourishing, a little bit of sense people can see that the so-called listening to advice, but a walking form. Attend the study meeting of all the public originally is a frightened, very not easy to have the right to learn, who dare not recognize the phase, put forward what opinion, cause new trouble? Therefore, the study meeting was held several times in succession, and the Xian Cao was repeatedly read several times, and the article was studied and discussed sentence by sentence, but still no one put forward any suggestion even for the modification of the sentence.

The unusual Mr. Liang Shuming’s heart was churning. He is also well aware that the first constitution of New China has been torn to pieces by the Cultural Revolution. How much significance does this new constitution have? However, when he first read the Constitution, there were almost no improper places. Since he asked for advice, why not say a few words? He also thought, “After more than four years of the Cultural Revolution, we have neither the right nor the opportunity to speak. Now that we have the right, why should we give it up?” There may be risks, but is it possible to learn internally, discuss internally, and commit a monumental crime just by saying a few words? It even occurred to him that it was beneath him to be afraid of this or that, after several days of meetings with more than a dozen prominent people, not to be able to offer a single opinion. It is better to be condemned by words than to be seen without courage or backbone. He decided to take the risk of giving advice.

At the last meeting, Liang Shuming stood up and spoke again. He said, word by word, with great articulateness:

Leaders welcome our suggestions, is to look up to us, this is also several years have not had the opportunity. I don’t think we should have any concerns, we should be frank to say their ideas or a hole, right for reference, wrong give up. So I’ve thought twice, and I’m here to make two comments.

First, as far as I can see, modern constitutions first emerged in Europe, first in England, and one of their important starting points was to limit the power of the crown. In other words, to limit the power of the individual too much. With the Constitution, everyone, from the head of state to the ordinary citizen, must abide by it and be equal before the law. No one individual is allowed to be placed above the Constitution. If the individual is placed above the Constitution, the implementation of the Constitution will certainly be incomplete and incomplete. Therefore, I think, in the preamble of the current Constitutional draft, the names of individuals, including Lin Biao as his successor, have been written into the Constitution, which is not appropriate, at least give people a sense of personal higher than the Constitution. Succession theory is a special case of China, and the meaning of the Constitution is universal. We cannot put the specific into the universal. But I declare that I disapprove of the inclusion of individual names, including successors, in the Constitution, and do not oppose the selection of an individual as a successor. China has always had its own special historical conditions and historical phenomena. The theory of succession exists objectively in a certain historical period, and it does not depend on the likes and dislikes of a certain person, either for or against.

Secondly, there are many fewer articles in this constitution than in the previous one. Fewer articles may not be necessarily bad, but some important articles are not so good, such as the establishment of a president. The head of state, not without. It is one thing to have the president of the country, but another to choose the right one. The current constitution does not have a president, I do not know why?

These two opinions of Liang Shuming, common as they seem now, were surprising and shocking at that time. Since Lin Biao was chosen as his successor a year ago, the ninth National Congress of the Communist Party of China was written into the constitution, so it is natural to write the preface into the constitution. More seriously, the preamble to xian Cao gives a much higher evaluation of Chairman MAO than That of Lin Biao. Although Liang Shuming’s speech only points to Lin Biao and does not mention Chairman MAO, it is intended not to speak in the heart of anyone who has heard it.

To borrow the language of the day, what a flagrant and vicious attack!

At the end of Mr. Liang Shuming’s speech, everyone looked at each other in speechless despair for a while, wondering what to say. Then someone put forward: Liang at the group meeting in the name of putting forward ideas, malicious attacks on the real, intentions how poisonous! Others said: if this kind of words were said outside, they would be criticized on the spot and smashed to pieces. Some suggested that such reactionary rhetoric should be disinfected at the group meeting. Liang Shuming said nothing about this. The moderator of the panel, Mr Yu Shu-tak, said at the end of the meeting: “The situation is positive. At the same time, it was announced that liang Shuming’s reactionary remarks would not be allowed to spread outwards, and whoever did so would be responsible.

This uproar, Liang Shuming felt that he had made a mistake. He knew that this was no more than 1957, and no less than 1953, that some people were suffering from gaffes and even going to jail. But a word spoken by a man is past recalling. How to do? He had to be mentally prepared.

Unexpectedly, a few days later the group convener announced at the meeting, the superior thought, solicit opinions, in the internal put forward what can be; It is not surprising that some people take the opportunity to poison because their ideas are always reactionary, but there is no need to badger them.

So Liang Shuming passed the test safely. And who is this superior? It must be Premier Zhou’s office, just like the non-withholding of wages in the early days of the Cultural Revolution. Liang Shuming conjecture in his mind – later facts proved that his conjecture was right.

The following year, Lin Biao fell to his death in Windul Khan. The four National People’s Congress did not open at that time, Xian Grass also aborted naturally.

Mr. Liang Shuming continues to ponder over the strange phenomena that occur in China’s real life. In the face of criticism of Chen Rectification, The death of Lin Biao, especially jiang Qing mastermind of the farce of Lin And Hole, Liang Shuming can no longer bear, simply shirtless, single-handed and Jiang Qing flow against. Liang Shuming has written another page of shocking history with his words and actions.