12 super interesting cold knowledge

Why is there such a big difference between banana flavoring and banana taste? What kind of pepper is hotter? Do the finger carrots sold in supermarkets grow like that originally?

Corn on the cob has an even number of columns of corn

Each cob is a fruit sequence, and each kernel on it is actually a separate fruit that develops from a successfully pollinated female flower. The “stick” in the middle of the corn is called the cob, and the ears are borne in pairs on the cob, each with a single fruit-bearing flowerlet, so the kernels grow in pairs on the cob as well. The kernels also grow in pairs on the cob, arranged in an even number of columns.

Peppers with soft, wrinkled skin tend to be spicier

The spiciness of chili peppers is mainly due to the capsaicin in them. The hardness is related to lignin, and chili peppers with less lignin tend to be wrinkled, and vice versa. The biosynthesis process of capsaicin requires a class of phenolic substances as precursors, which are also precursors of lignin. Pepper cells have a class of POD enzymes that accelerate capsaicin degradation and promote lignin synthesis. Peppers with low POD enzyme activity have less lignin synthesis and wrinkled fruits, while the capsaicin content is elevated, making them more spicy to eat.

Flat mushrooms love meat as much as you do

There are few known carnivorous fungi, and the flat mushroom is one of them. Its mycelium can prey on nematodes to absorb nitrogen, although the main nutrients are still obtained from rotten wood.

Various mushrooms are more closely related to chicken, duck and fish

Edible mushrooms are all fungi, long ago considered a taxon of plants, but now we know through molecular evidence that eukaryotic domains can be divided into two major groups: uniflagellated organisms and biflagellated organisms, and both fungi and animals belong to uniflagellated organisms, while plants are a branch of biflagellated organisms, so from a phylogenetic point of view, mushrooms are more closely related to chicken, duck and fish.

Artificially cultivated shiitake mushrooms used to be blown by a gale

The shiitake mushroom has a long history of consumption, but it was not cultivated artificially until 1942, before that the mushroom could only be cultivated by sawing wood into sections and placing them at the edge of the forest, waiting for the wind to blow the spores onto the wood, and the harvest was very unstable. In 1942, Japanese agronomist Kisaku Mori invented the “seed foal” method, which refers to a piece of wood with mycelium, and put this piece of wood in a wide-mouth jar to inoculate the mushroom spores, and wait until the mycelium is full and then embed it in the log to cultivate the mushroom.

Sunflower seeds are not sunflower seeds, nor are strawberry seeds.

Among various kinds of melon seeds, watermelon seeds are the seeds of watermelon, pumpkin seeds are the seeds of pumpkin, and hanging melon seeds are the seeds of raspberry, but only sunflower seeds are not seeds, but the fruits of sunflower. The fruit of a plant is developed from the entire pistil ovary (some plants also have other floral structures such as receptacles and sepals in their fruit), the ovary wall develops into the fruit skin, and the ovules inside the ovary develop into seeds after pollination. The “flower” of a sunflower is actually an inflorescence of many flowers, and the central part of the inflorescence “Sunflower seeds are the fruit that develops after pollination of these small flowers, and the outer skin that is opened is its pericarp.

Strawberry is a polymer fruit, the red edible part is the fleshy receptacle, each “seed” is also a pistil development of a fruit.

There is no cola in Coca-Cola today

Coke is a plant of the mallow family native to West Africa, and the fruit contains caffeine, which was derived from Coke extract in early Coca-Cola. However, due to the presence of carcinogenic nitroso compounds in cola nuts, Coca-Cola replaced cola nut extracts with artificial flavors and caffeine as early as 1955, reducing the risk of cancer while also reducing costs.

Apples contain cyanide, but can’t poison Snow White

Apple seeds contain traces of cyanogenic glycosides, which can generate highly toxic hydrocyanic acid after being hydrolyzed by enzyme catalysis, but because the content is so low, eating apples also generally does not cause poisoning symptoms by eating the seeds. The seeds of peaches, apricots, plums, cherries, loquats and other fruits of the Rosaceae family also contain cyanogenic glycosides, especially in bitter almonds, which can be poisonous if eaten in excess and can be fatal, but cyanogenic glycosides are easily soluble in water, and most of them can be removed by soaking in water and frequent water changes.

Finger carrots in supermarkets are peeled by machines

Finger carrots are machine peeled carrots that have grown crooked and are not sold well, so if you look closely you will see that there is no skin on the surface. There are many varieties of carrots, including the pocket variety, but the shape is slender and not as small as finger carrots.

Lychee peel was a spice in ancient times

The ancient literati like to burn incense, but the sink sandalwood dragon musk these expensive spices are expensive, so many cheap spices were developed, lychee shell is one of them. Ming Dynasty “Mo’e small record” recorded a “four-leaf cake incense”, the main ingredients are lychee shells, pine shells, pear skin, sugar cane bagasse, “incense multiplier” there is a recipe for incense. With the lychee shells, bagasse, dried cypress leaves, Huanglian, the name of the finished product is simple and clear, called “mountain forest poor four”. These incense burned up what taste I do not know, interested in eating lychee can try themselves.

Want to grow Buddha’s hand melon will have to bury the whole melon alive

Buddha’s hand melon and cucumber, watermelon, pumpkin and other cucurbits are different, each fruit only a grain of hard to separate out the large seeds, the seed coat is thin and soft, can not block the seeds dehydration, the seeds left the fruit can not be stored for a long time is not easy to germinate. And Buddha’s hand melon seeds do not have a dormant period, after maturity will sprout directly in the melon, so the seeds are generally buried directly in the soil throughout the melon.

Seventy years ago bananas and banana flavoring is a taste

Have you ever felt that the banana flavoring inside banana milk and banana cake tastes different from the real banana? That’s because the banana has changed, but the flavoring has not. Banana is a triploid organism without fertile seeds. People use asexual reproduction methods such as dividing plants to reproduce bananas, which means that from a genetic point of view, each banana plantlet is a clone of the mother plant, with the same genes, the same taste and the same disease resistance. Before the 1950s, the bananas grown commercially all over the world were basically a variety called Gros Michel/Big Mike, which was replaced by Cavendish because it could not resist the Panama disease that spread all over the world.