Qu Yuan’s tragedy stems from the refusal to be co-signed for his academic work

The Dragon Boat Festival is here again, so let’s get together and rub the flow of patriotic poets.

I prepared for a few days and stayed up late last night to write more than 3,000 words, all of which were deleted at the last minute, leaving only a title for narcissism with “Qu Yuan and Guo Jing: Who in the end is the sinner who hindered the unification of China”.

The reason for writing that title comes from a recent article that says Qu Yuan’s so-called “patriotism” was only for the state of Chu. What he did, in fact, was to hinder the process of Qin’s unification.

It was almost like saying that he was a Chu dictator.

So I think of Guo Jing in Xiangyang, in the eyes of those who are proud of the Mongolian Empire, is he also hindering the unification of China?

Of course, Guo Jing is a fictional character in the novel, and Qu Yuan, whose authenticity has been controversial in the last hundred years …… The reason why I wrote and deleted it is here, the topic of whether Qu Yuan existed in history is a big thunderbolt that has been triggering controversy for a hundred years, it is not something that a Chinese field history lover like me can safely drain. I dare not sacrifice myself to trip this thunderstorm.

In the end, I decided to take “The Records of the Grand Historian” as the basis, and talk about the root cause of the tragic life of Qu Yuan in Sima Qian’s writing.

Because, Sima Qian’s “Qu Yuan Jia Sheng Lie Zhuan” (hereinafter referred to as Qu Zhuan) is the earliest historical book that can be seen to record the character of Qu Yuan. I will take it as the basis, and say “Qu Yuan in the Historical Records” about “Qu Yuan in the Historical Records”, not aside from the other, do not spray if you do not like.

Why did Qu Yuan abandon King Huai of Chu? Almost all the articles say that he insisted on the policy of uniting Qi against Qin, and the ruler and ministers of Chu fell for Qin Zhang Yi’s diversionary scheme, and the great doctor Jin Shang and Gong Zi Lan and other people were slandering in front of King Huai of Chu, so Qu Yuan was deposed.

This is true, but a key word in the biography of Qu has been missed by many people: the reason why the doctor Jin Shang and Qu Yuan crossed paths, the cause is “competition for favor”.

The original Qu was a member of the royal family of Chu, surnamed Mi, Qu, the name Ping, the word Yuan (so Sima Qian Qu Yuan, Qu Ping mixed), the official position is the left apprentice (some say equivalent to the vice minister, some say equivalent to the left collector), he “knowledgeable and strong will, clear in the governance, skilled in rhetoric”, that is, knowledgeable, strong memory, high governing ability, good at diplomatic rhetoric. He was good at diplomatic rhetoric. So King Huai of Chu favored him, and before he was slandered, Qu Yuan “entered the king to discuss state affairs and give orders, and left to receive guests and deal with the lords”.

In a word: the state teacher, legislation, diplomacy, and even the spokesman for the press.

Too competent, inevitably lead to jealousy, “Shangguan Dafu and the same line, and compete for favor and the heart to harm its ability”. The king’s official position is equal to that of Qu Yuan, but when he saw that King Huai was so fond of Qu Yuan, he was jealous and jealous, and he was determined to get him down.

This kind of people, this kind of thing, throughout the ages has not changed, only sometimes called court politics, sometimes called office politics.

Finally, Jin Shang waited for an opportunity, “King Huai made Qu Yuan made for the constitutional order, Qu Ping belonged to the grass alfalfa undetermined. The official officials wanted to take it away, but Qu Ping did not cooperate.

King Huai of Chu gave the important task of revising the constitution to Qu Yuan, Qu Yuan had just written the first draft, not yet given to King Huai for consideration, Jin Shang knew about it, said to Qu Yuan, this draft has a few things wrong, you let me change it, counting our joint work, so that the king is more likely to pass.

Qu Yuan disagreed.

Note the words “want to take” and “not with”, many interpretations say that Jin Shang wanted to steal Qu Yuan’s first draft of the revised constitution for himself, Qu Yuan did not give. But this argument is really far-fetched, since King Huai explicitly ordered Qu Yuan to create the constitution, how can Jin Shang steal the credit, at this time Qu Yuan is still more favored than Jin Shang it.

The explanation worthy of credence is that the word “take” has the meaning of change, which is derived from revision; “with” has the meaning of approval, which is derived from agreement. Jin Shang wants to modify, Qu Yuan does not agree, this is in line with common sense.

But then, another question arises: Why did Jin Shang want to revise Qu Yuan’s first draft?

There is a theory that it was a conflict between the reformist and conservative positions. Qu Yuan wanted to carry out reforms in Chu, but the reforms would have touched the interests of those with vested interests, so Jin Shang tried hard to block them.

But in Sima Qian’s writing, Jin Shang’s “desire to take away” is a follow-up to his “competition for favor and harm to his ability”.

So, let’s compromise: Jin Shang wanted to revise the first draft of Qu Yuan’s constitution, mainly because he wanted to take some credit for it, not to let Qu Yuan’s exclusive beauty. If Qu Yuan agreed, he could have told King Huai that I had drafted the first draft by order of the king, but Shangguan Dafu had also contributed.

The best of both worlds, it is like a joint signature in a university paper.

When Qu Yuan disagreed, he offended Jin Shang, who was jealous of him.

It is never good to offend a villain. Jin Shang was so displeased that he slandered King Huai in front of him: “The king made Qu Ping an order, and the people did not know that every order came out, and Ping felled his work, saying that he thought ‘I can’t do it’.” Everyone in the court knew that you had made Qu Yuan legislate, but every time you issued a decree, Qu Yuan gave himself the credit, saying that no one else could do it except him.

Jin Shang’s words not only poked at the heart of King Huai of Chu, but also poked at the sore spot of all great leaders for 2,000 to 3,000 years. Under the kingship system, of course, any achievements made by the subjects must be attributed to the wise leadership of the king, and those who are wise will express this in public at the right time, as you can see from the official acceptance speeches of the awards.

Qu Yuan, according to his character, certainly think I use action to loyalty to the king and patriotism is enough, because love is not said, is done; so he certainly will not say “I can achieve a little success, all thanks to the king’s guidance,” so flattering words to.

Of course, “I can’t do anything else”, even if it is true, it can’t come from Qu Yuan’s mouth, otherwise, Jin Shang’s words would not be considered slander.

But it doesn’t matter whether you said it or not, what matters is whether the king thinks you said it or not. The King of Chu Huai thought of this and took Jin Shang’s words for granted, so “the king was angry and alienated Qu Ping.

King Huai of Chu was angry and alienated Qu Yuan, no longer giving him projects, no longer giving him funds for his subjects, cold treatment.

In fact, it is the Chu version of non-promotion is gone.

The so-called high merit shocks the master, generally means that not only your political life is over, natural life may also be ended, Chu Huai Wang just “alienate Qu Ping”, considered magnanimous, sensible, since the name is Qu Ping, then be condescending, go home to lie flat.

Qu Yuan did not, he wanted to give vent to his injustice.

Of course, he did not kill Jin Shang, who wanted to co-sign with him. He had a more ruthless move.

He also used a knife, but instead of stabbing his enemy, he carved it into a bamboo slip. He wanted to write a tweet, so that Jin Shang, who had framed him, and King Huai of Chu, who had believed the slander, would die – oh no, it should be “historical death”, that is, they would be nailed to the pillar of shame in history.

Thus, there is the famous “Li Sao”.

Whatever the purpose of later generations, to this majestic text with a variety of politically correct interpretation, can not change the original intention of Qu Yuan’s creation: to spit, to vent anger. As Sima Qian said: “faith and see doubt, loyalty and be slandered, can not complain about? Qu Ping’s Li Sao, cover since the grievance is also born.” A sincere loyalty to the king and patriotism, but slandered by the villain and doubted by the king, how can there be no resentment? The reason why Qu Yuan wrote “Li Sao” was to give vent to this resentment.

For example, this passage

The long breath to cover the snot, lamenting the hardships of the people. Although I am fascinating and questing, I am not sure if I will be replaced. The first thing that I want to do is to take a look at the other side. The first thing that I want to do is to be a good person. I am sorry to say that I am not aware of the hearts of the people. The most important thing is that you can get a good idea of what you are doing.

The actual fact is that you can’t help but to be able to get a good deal on your own. They accuse me of being a woman who doesn’t want to work, but this is my hobby and sentiment, and it won’t affect my work, and I won’t change it even if I die. I hated the fact that the boss was confused and didn’t understand my true feelings from the beginning to the end. Those people are obviously jealous of my beauty and talent coexist ah, only to create rumors that I have a problem with work attitude.

You see, this is the revenge of the literati, not a slice of red, but to the point, but also creative use of “beauty and vanilla” and other metaphors to hook sensitive content, to avoid censorship.

This is how Qu Yuan first met with King Huai of Chu, and from the beginning to the end, it has nothing to do with the grand idea of “patriotism”.

However, the subsequent depreciation and deportation to sink Miluo, is to follow this slander and come. Because, if Qu Yuan did not offend Jin Shang, he was still the most favored minister of King Huai of Chu, then, he advocated the policy of alliance with Qi against Qin, may be adopted by King Huai, so that not only the fate of Qu Yuan, the fate of Chu, and even the fate of the six countries may be changed.

Unfortunately, history does not allow assumptions, the next Zhang Yi between Chu, King Huai, Qi sleeve, Chu army defeat, one episode after another, by the doctor Jin Shang, Gong Zi Lan and favorite concubine Zheng Sleeve composed of “anti Qu alliance”, as between Qu Yuan and King Huai built a brick wall, Qu Yuan watched the Chu state building is crumbling but can not help, until In the end, Qu Yuan was detained by King Zhaoxiang and died in Qin, despite Qu Yuan’s advice.

By this time, the top officials of Chu should have understood Qu Yuan and believed that his policy of alliance with Qi against Qin was right, so they recalled him to preside over the state, right?

I think too much. When King Huai’s eldest son, King Huixiang, succeeded to the throne, he was still favored by the “anti-Qu faction” Zi Lan, Jin Shang and others. He continued to write the article, “three times in one article”, and planted a thunderbolt in the article, repeatedly accusing Zi Lan of selling out Chu.

At this time, Zilan was already a minister of Chu, and when he saw Qu Yuan criticizing him in his article, he was “furious, so he asked the superior official to shorten Qu Yuan to King Huxiang, who moved him in anger”. He instructed Jin Shang, who had experience in making false accusations, to speak ill of Qu Yuan again in front of King Huxiang, who, like his father, was furious and banished Qu Yuan without distinction.

In the place of exile, Qu Yuan wrote “Huaisha”, “so Huaishi threw himself into Miluo to die”. In the last two lines of “Huaisha”, his death wish is already on the page: “Knowing that death is not an option, I wish not to love Ruoxi. I will tell the gentleman that I will be like him.” Since I know that death is inevitable, there is no need to cherish the rest of my life; I will follow your example, all the martyrs, and become one of you.

This is the real reason for the tragedy of Qu Yuan in Sima Qian’s book. Character determines fate, even without Zhang Yi’s diversionary scheme, Qu Yuan’s end was predetermined a long time ago.

Only recently studied the Central Research Institute of literature and history, the famous professor of Fudan University, the respected teacher of history Ge Jianxiong at the end of August 2016 in a meeting to study the important speech, the main point is that “the application of history must grasp the political direction.

The aura of a “patriotic poet” to Qu Yuan, or calling Qu Yuan a “sinner who hindered the unification of China”, is to stand in the position of today’s people, values, “grasp the political direction The fruit of the “political direction”.

However, while grasping the direction, they do not know whether intentionally or unintentionally missed a historical material: from Qu Yuan’s death to the Qin “unification of China”, there are still more than fifty years. Qu Yuan’s activities in the political arena, the Qin state through the Qin Huiwen Wang, King Wu, Qin Zhaoxiang three generations, after Qu Yuan’s death, still twenty years before the death of King Zhaoxiang, and then after King Xiaowen, King Zhuangxiang, and then the great unification of the great Qin Shi Huang.

So Qu Yuan lived in the era, although the Qin tiger heart of the world is known, but Qi, Chu, Zhao are not weak, if not for poor decision-making, they may also be “unified China”, the world is still unknown who died.

In particular, the Chu state, which Qu Yuan “loved”, had the ambition to unify the world more than 300 years earlier than Qin – as early as the Spring and Autumn period, the old leader of the Chu state, King Chu Zhuang, was thinking of “unifying China “The evidence for this is the famous “Asking for the Tripod” incident.

So, why can’t we say that Qu Yuan’s efforts were also for the revival of Chu and the realization of the great dream of “unifying China”?