Behind the Nanchang Riot and the End of the Initiators

August 1 is what the Chinese Communist Party calls “Army Day” because on this day in 1927, He Long, Zhou Enlai, Ye Ting, Zhu De and Yun Daying instigated an armed rebellion by some of the Northern Expeditionary Guomindang troops, more than 20,000 strong, in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, and He Long joined the Chinese Communist Party from then on. This was the birth of the so-called army of the Chinese Communist Party. However, behind this riot there were unspeakable secrets of the CCP, because it was full of conspiracy and betrayal, and the end of its initiators and participants was mostly miserable.

The Chinese Communist Party “developed in a shell” and disrupted the Kuomintang

In 1922, Sun Yat-sen, after believing the Soviet Union’s assurance that it would never transplant the communist system to China, agreed to the “United Russia and Communist Party” and allowed CCP members to join the Kuomintang in their personal capacity. Afterwards, members joined the Kuomintang at the will of their Soviet masters to “develop in a shell”, using the already strong Kuomintang to develop and strengthen themselves. They disregarded Sun Yat-sen’s warnings, propagated communism in the KMT, disobeyed KMT orders, sowed discord in the KMT, and stole leadership positions in the organization and propaganda departments of the KMT.

In March 1925, after Sun Yat-sen’s death, Chiang Kai-shek, who was the president of the Whampoa Military Academy, became the hero of the National Revolutionary Army by virtue of his two victories in the Eastern Expedition and unified the two provinces, ranking with Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin as the leaders of the Kuomintang. Wang Jingwei, who was also the chairman of the National Government and the Military Commission, at that time favored Soviet Russia and the Chinese Communist Party, while Chiang Kai-shek was the representative of anti-Soviet Russia and anti-Communist within the KMT.

In January 1926, the Second National Congress of the Kuomintang was held, and the Communist Party’s plan to seize power was fully realized at this meeting. Among the Standing Committee of the KMT Central Committee, the Executive Committee of the Central Committee and the members of the Central Committee, the Communist Party and the pro-Russian and pro-Communist “leftist” leaders of the KMT accounted for more than one-third respectively, while the remaining one-third were considered to be centrists. Among the ministers of the Kuomintang Central Committee, the majority were members of the CCP. As a result, the “Second Congress” of the KMT was actually turned into the “Second Congress” of the Communist Party, and almost all the important leadership positions of the KMT Central Committee were occupied by the Communists. The local organizations at all levels of the Kuomintang were almost all held by the Communist Party, which “established a party headquarters on behalf of the Kuomintang”. At this time, Sun Yat-sen’s Three People’s Principles were no longer in demand. Similarly, Chiang Kai-shek’s proposal for the Northern Expedition at the Second National Congress was opposed by all the Soviet advisors and the Chinese Communist Party.

Chiang Kai-shek organized party affairs and launched the Northern Expedition

After the Second National Congress, Chiang Kai-shek, who had a clear understanding of the Communist Party, used the “Zhongshan Ship Incident” in late March to organize the Party affairs in order to protect the anti-communist patriarchs of the KMT and limit the expansion of the Communist Party’s power in the KMT, and to regain some of its power. Chiang began to establish his position as the top leader of the KMT and assumed the position of chairman of the KMT Central Standing Committee. Thereafter, Chiang Kai-shek began to focus on the Northern Expedition in the hope of unifying China.

Amidst opposition from Soviet Russia and the Chinese Communist Party and obstruction through incitement of peasant riots, the Northern Expeditionary Army began its campaign in 1926 and achieved constant victories. After taking possession of the provincial capitals and major cities in seven provinces: Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Fujian and Guizhou, the National Government and the Kuomintang Party headquarters moved to Wuhan. Taking advantage of Chiang’s presence in Nanchang, Soviet Russia and the Chinese Communist Party single-handedly directed a coup d’état jointly staged by the pro-Russian and pro-Communist factions of the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang, removing Chiang from important positions and reinstating Wang Jingwei as the chairman of the Kuomintang. The Kuomintang faced the danger of another split.

The Kuomintang “purges” the Communist Party

In early 1927, the Northern Expeditionary Army conquered Shanghai and Nanking. The “Nanking Incident”, which was planned by the CCP to attack foreign consulates, churches and business associations and caused casualties and property damage, forced Chiang Kai-shek to “purge the Party”. More than three hundred people were executed. On April 18, the Nanjing National Government was formally established, with Hu Hanmin as Chairman of the National Government Committee and Chairman of the Central Political Conference, which marked the split with the Wuhan National Government.

At this time, the Wuhan National Government also began to “divide the Communist Party”. Although Wang Jingwei, who was the chairman of the National Government at that time, still tried his best to advocate tolerance of the Communist Party, anti-Communist sentiment became more and more obvious among the Nationalist officials in the Wuhan government, especially because the peasant movement started by the Communist Party was too fierce, and most of the lower and middle ranking officers of the Nationalist Party were small and medium landowners, whose parents and friends were seized and fought by the Communist peasant associations in their hometowns, making them indignant. However, Wang Jingwei soon changed his mind.

It turned out that the Communist International also felt that the Kuomintang in Wuhan was unreliable, so it ordered the Communist Party to organize its own “Workers’ and Peasants’ Revolutionary Army” to reorganize the Kuomintang Wuhan government and confiscate the land of the landlords for public ownership. The Communist International sent an Indian, Lu Yi, to transmit this secret order, the so-called May Instruction, to the CPC Central Committee in Wuhan. However, after arriving in Wuhan on June 1, 1927, Ruyi, having excessive trust in Wang Jingwei, handed over the May Instruction to Wang before handing it to the CPC.

Wang Jingwei was astonished to see the May Instruction, the main contents of which were: First, to ignore the ban of the Kuomintang and implement a bottom-up agrarian revolution. Second, to organize a revolutionary army of workers and peasants in Hunan and Hubei consisting of 20,000 communists and 50,000 workers and peasants. 3. Reorganize the Central Executive Committee of the Kuomintang, expelling all those with old ideas and replacing them with representatives of workers and peasants from all walks of life. Fourth, organize a revolutionary court to try counter-revolutionary officers. After reading this, Wang Jingwei realized that the Communists had joined the Kuomintang in order to subvert and dismantle it from within, and had no sincere intention to cooperate with the Kuomintang. Wang Jingwei then turned 180 degrees from pro-communist to anti-communist and became a staunch anti-communist. Subsequently, Wang approached Borodin, the top Soviet advisor in Wuhan, for questioning. Borodin said he would convince Chen Duxiu to suspend this instruction from the Communist International.

On July 13, the Communist Party issued a manifesto stating that “at present, the revolution is at a critical moment, and the Central Committee of the Kuomintang and the Kuomintang government in Wuhan have recently made open preparations for a coup d’état ……. Therefore, the Communist Party of China has decided to withdraw the Communist Party members who have joined the Nationalist Government …….” It also denigrated Wang Jingwei.

After seeing the CCP’s declaration, Wang Jingwei convened an emergency meeting and decided to “split the Communist Party”, but Wang advocated a peaceful approach, i.e. to let the Communist Party withdraw from the Kuomintang peacefully. However, the Chinese Communist Party responded to Wang Jingwei’s decision to “split the Communist Party” with an armed riot.

Nanchang Riot and its Aftermath

On August 1, under the planning of the CCP, He Long, the commander of the 20th Army under the Second Front Army of Zhang Fa-kui, who had been secretly colluding with the CCP, started an armed riot in Nanchang in an attempt to establish his own territory. The Nanchang Uprising caused the Wuhan Nationalist Government to completely abandon its policy of peaceful division of the Communist Party and began an explicit crusade against the Communists.

On August 6, Wang Jingwei openly admitted his mistakes to the society; on August 8, Wang Jingwei convened an emergency expansion meeting of the KMT Central Committee, expelled all members of the Communist Party and those who served in the Party and removed them from office, and passed the resolution of “forceful division of the Communist Party”, and also began to arrest and execute Communists in Wuhan. The first so-called “Communist cooperation” finally broke down completely. After that, the two governments of Wuhan and Nanjing were merged.

It is obvious that the August 1 riot in Nanchang was a vain attempt to usurp power when the Communist Party was facing a crisis, and it was full of conspiracy and betrayal. The origins of the Chinese Communist army were undoubtedly as dishonorable as its founding, and many of its subsequent actions were disgraceful, especially during the war, when, at Mao’s behest, it basically hid in the rear of the country, such as Yan’an, to build up its strength for the seizure of power.

The end of the participants who started the riots

According to the Chinese Communist Party, the main leaders involved in the Nanchang Riot were He Long, Ye Ting, Zhu De, Zhou Enlai, Yun Daying, Lin Biao, Liu Bo Cheng, Chen Yi, Nie Rongzhen, Ye Jianying, etc. The military commander-in-chief was He Long. Except for Yun Daying, who was killed by the Kuomintang, and Ye Ting, who died in a plane crash, all of these men lived to see the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party, but very few of them got a good end.

For example, He Long, who defected to the CCP and commanded the Nanchang Riot, met an extremely sad end, as he was persecuted to death during the Cultural Revolution at the behest of Mao. According to the book “Marshal of the Republic: The Extraordinary Path of He Long” by Gu Yongzhong, published on the mainland, He Long and his wife were subjected to inhuman treatment during the censorship period. Their bedding and pillows were taken away, so that they could only sleep on bare bedpans for a period of time; the food was getting worse and worse, and the sand in the rice was increasing; the supply of water was limited in the summer, and the water supply even stopped for more than 40 days. He Long, who was suffering from diabetes, could only save water and catch rainwater to quench his thirst. Later, Mr. and Mrs. He Long were transferred to another station and were under close surveillance. Moreover, the meals provided were cabbage and bran radish cooked in clear water that did not see a bit of oil. Medical treatment for He Long’s diabetes was also restricted and delayed. He Long’s body became weaker and weaker, and finally he could not even walk to the toilet.

In late March He Long finally fell ill with cerebral ischemia and aphasia and was admitted to a hospital in the Beijing garrison. From October 13 to 31, under the auspices of Mao, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held the 12th Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee. At the meeting, Mao once again announced that he was not going to protect He Long. He Long’s fate was thus sealed and his situation deteriorated.

On January 15, 1969, the “He Long Task Force” went so far as to give instructions to the “doctors”: “Use the existing medicine as much as possible, just maintain the current level, and don’t treat him like a good man. Don’t treat He Long like a good man.” On the morning of June 8, He Long became ill, vomiting three times in a row, shortness of breath, and weakness, but he was resuscitated only after 13 hours, and not only did he not receive insulin, the special medicine for diabetes, but also glucose. 9, He Long died. That night, He Long’s body was quietly sent to the Eight Treasure Mountains to “Wang Yu” pseudonym cremation, cremation of relatives were not allowed to attend the cremation, after the cremation, “He Long task force” to the urn, secretly placed in a small funeral home, and ordered. “No one is allowed to spread the word, it must be absolutely confidential.”

Another leader, Zhu De, led the remnants of his troops to rejoin Mao at Jinggang Mountain after the failed riot. During the Nationalist-Communist civil war, Zhu De was appointed by Mao as commander-in-chief of the army. After the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party, Zhu De served as Vice Chairman of the State, Vice Chairman of the CPC Central Committee, and Chairman of the National People’s Congress. During the Cultural Revolution, Zhu De was beaten down and slogans calling him a “great warlord, ambitious man and black commander” were posted not only on the streets of Beijing but also in Zhongnanhai. He was ordered to give an account of his crimes against Mao, and was criticized several times at the Ninth Congress of the Communist Party in 1969. After the death of Zhou Enlai in January 1976, Zhu De’s health became even weaker, and on July 1, his condition deteriorated sharply. On the 6th, Zhu De passed away.

There was also Liu Bo Cheng who was criticized in 1958. after being criticized, Liu Bo Cheng’s only left eye got glaucoma and his vision gradually diminished. in September 1959, Liu Bo Cheng was appointed as the head of the strategic group of the Central Military Commission. His health deteriorated, he had frequent headaches and his eye pressure increased, and in 1964 he suffered an eye attack, from which his left eye could only distinguish the color of clothes. After the outbreak of the Cultural Revolution, the Strategic Group of the Central Military Commission was abolished and Liu Bo-ching was left without a job. 1972 Liu Bo-ching lost his eyesight completely and had to stay in the hospital for a long time. 1973 his condition worsened due to misuse of drugs and he lost his thinking ability. 1975 he lost his ability to take care of himself and passed away in 1986.

In addition, Lin Biao was killed by the Chinese Communist Party in 1971 for his so-called “defection”. Zhou Enlai, who had two faces, had bladder cancer in 1972 and died in agony. Chen Yi was criticized during the Cultural Revolution because of the “February Counter-current” incident, and was sent to labor. Nie Rongzhen was also criticized during the Cultural Revolution and died of heart failure in 1992. Ye Jianying was treated badly during the Cultural Revolution, and his second son, Ye Xuanning, was seriously injured when his right arm was rolled into a machine during the Cultural Revolution, resulting in a lifelong disability.

What are the consequences of these senior generals and officials who participated in the Nanchang riots and the founding of the Chinese Communist Party telling the world? From them one can also see what the Chinese Communist Party has brought to the Chinese people.