During the latter stages of the Nationalist-Communist civil war, especially after the Kuomintang lost Nanjing in April 1949, and before the Chinese Communist Party attacked Shanghai, Mao Zedong again issued the “Chinese People’s Liberation Army Bulletin,” also known as the “Eight Chapters of the Covenant,” in his and Zhu De’s name on April 25, and posted it everywhere in addition to broadcasting it to the nation. Previously, in December 1949, the Chinese Communist Army had issued the Eight Rules of Engagement before attacking Beiping.
The content and usefulness of the Eight Charter of the Covenant
The specific contents of the Eight Charter of the Covenant included: First, to protect people’s lives and property and to severely punish counter-revolutionary sabotage. 2. To protect industry and commerce to continue production. 3. Confiscate bureaucratic capital, and allow those who are willing to continue to serve to be employed according to their ability. Fourth, to protect hospitals, schools, sports and other cultural facilities and public welfare.
Except for war criminals and counter-revolutionaries who have committed the most serious crimes, the People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Government shall not take prisoners or arrest any officials of the Kuomintang Central Committee, provincial, municipal or county governments, delegates to the National Assembly, legislators and supervisors, senators, police officers, and security guards of districts, towns and villages who do not resist with guns or conspire to destroy them. The People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Government will not take captives, arrest or humiliate them. The People’s Liberation Army and the People’s Government will not capture, arrest, or insult any of these people who have a skill without serious reactionary acts or serious misdeeds. If there is an opportunity for sabotage, theft, fraud, absconding with public funds, public property, files, or refusing to account, they must be punished.
Sixth, all stragglers should report to the local liberation army or the people’s government to surrender. Where the automatic surrender to report, and all weapons handed over, will not be pursued. Those who do not report, or conceal their weapons, shall be arrested and investigated. Those who conceal or fail to report shall be subject to considerable disciplinary action. 7. To suspend the land reform in rural areas, the land and housing in urban areas cannot be handled in the same way as rural land issues. Protect the lives and property of foreign nationals.
Against the background that the defeat of the Kuomintang had been decided, the Eight Rules of Engagement made the Kuomintang party, government and military personnel at all levels choose to lay down their arms and give up resistance, and also made many people, including businessmen, who were watching, choose to stay on the mainland.
The Chinese Communist Party broke its promise to suppress the KMT generals
To the surprise of many people, the CCP changed its face after establishing the government in 1949 and killed and maimed many KMT defectors, entrepreneurs, intellectuals and ordinary people by launching one campaign after another, and its actions completely violated the Eight Chapters of the Treaty.
According to information provided by Baidu, during the civil war between China and the Communist Party from 1946 to 1949, about 1.77 million Kuomintang officers and soldiers “defected” to the Communist Party, including about 1,400 generals, including Wu Huawen in Jinan and Fu Zuoyi in Beiping.
For some of the senior Kuomintang generals who “revolted” or “defected,” the CCP offered them official titles and generous compensation to buy their hearts and minds, such as Fu Zuoyi’s appointment as Minister of Water Resources. For most of these generals, the CCP eliminated them through the “anti-rebellion” campaign. For example, the majority of Fu Zuoyi’s men were suppressed.
In fact, before and after the establishment of the CCP, that is, in the so-called old and new liberated areas of the CCP, the practice of suppressing counter-revolutionary and counter-revolutionary activities never ceased. According to the official statistics of the CCP, the remaining disorganized forces of the Kuomintang at the beginning of the CCP’s establishment were collectively called “political bandits”, and there were about 2 million people, another 600,000 secret agents, and 600,000 backbones of the reactionary party groups, totaling 3 million people. Most of these people had been imprisoned, controlled or killed in the process of clearing the bandits and fighting against hegemony.
In March and July 1950, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, fearing that it would not kill enough, issued two directives to “suppress counterrevolution”, and in October, it issued another directive to suppress counterrevolution, the famous “Double Ten Directive”, warning all places to correct In October, the CPC Central Committee issued another instruction to suppress counterrevolution, the famous “Double Ten Instruction”, warning all regions to correct the “right-leaning” tendency of “leniency”. The bad luck of the KMT generals who “defected” started from then on.
During the crackdown, the suppressed Kuomintang generals were roughly divided into the following categories: first, those who returned Home after being dismissed or captured after “defecting”; second, those who returned home after several years of retirement and engaged in other occupations; third, those who fought guerrillas and were eventually captured during the “bandit suppression” battles; fourth The first two categories are the most numerous, such as those who fled the country out of fear and those who were found in hiding. The first two categories have the largest number of people.
In January 1952, the Chinese Communist Party’s “Xiangxiang County People’s Court” cited Song Hegeng as having “served as a division commander, army commander, provincial construction director and general counselor of the bandit army. He was sentenced to death for “having served as a bandit division commander, a military commander, a provincial construction director, a general counselor, etc., consistently endangering the people and resisting the revolution ……”. In fact, in 1925, Song left the military and lived in Shanghai after 1931. In 1949, Song Hegeng also took out his private gun collection and instructed his nephew to organize the Huaqiao police force in Xiangxiang County and defected to the Chinese Communist underground army.
During this period, other senior Kuomintang generals who were killed included: Wang Xufu, Chief of Instruction of the Central Military Academy Cadets; Xiao Bupeng, Acting Chief of Education of the Central Military Academy Major General; Liu Jin, Deputy Commander of the 1st Corps; Han Qigong, Chief of Staff of the 2nd Corps and Lieutenant General of the Xuzhou Pacification Office; Li Benyi, Deputy Commander of the 3rd Corps and Commander of the 7th Army; Wen Huaiguang, Deputy Commander of the 10th Corps; Zhou Address, Chief of Staff of the 12th Army Group; 14th Corps Jin Yiwu, Chief of Staff of the 14th Corps and Deputy Commander of the 7th Column; Wang Yucheng, Chief of Staff of the 17th Corps; Chen Yinglong, Deputy Commander of the 2nd Corps and Commander of the 9th Division; Yin Zuogan, Deputy Commander of the 2nd Corps and Police Commander of Yichang; Li Yongzhang, Deputy Commander of the 3rd Corps and Commander of the 7th Division; Xu Jie, Commander of the 5th New Army; Zhong Zupei, Deputy Commander of the 7th Corps and Division Commander; Zeng Xiancheng, Deputy Commander of the 8th Corps of the 3rd Corps; Wu Tinglin, Commander of the 15th Corps; Xia Jiong, Deputy Commander of the 20th Corps. Xia Jiong, deputy commander of the 20th Army; Xiang Chuanyi, deputy commander of the 24th Army; Cao Sen, deputy commander of the 26th Army and commander of the Western Yunnan Division; Liu Menglian, commander of the 27th Army; Liu Bingzhe, commander of the 28th Army; Zhang Zhigong, commander of the 29th Army and senator of the Military Senate; Han Buzhou, commander of the 33rd Army; Gao Jongyi, commander of the 34th Army; Chen Chunlin, commander of the 44th Army; He Shaonan, commander of the 66th Army; Li Chuying, commander of the 85th Army and 15th Army Group Li Chuying, deputy commander-in-chief of the 15th Army Group; Wang Ying, commander-in-chief of the cavalry of the 12th War Zone; Xie Lingshi, major general and senior counselor of the Xinjiang Dihua Police Command; Tang Xianyao, chief of staff of the Sichuan-Europe Advancing Army Command of the Ministry of National Defense; Mo Zhikuan, lieutenant general and senior counselor of the Ministry of National Defense; Deng Yulin, commander of the first left-road army of the Northern Expeditionary Army; Xia Zhishi, commander-in-chief of the Xinhai Uprising Sichuan Revolutionary Army ……
In addition to the above-mentioned military-grade generals, there were also many Nationalist officers killed at the division and brigade levels. The list is too long to list them all. The majority of them were generals who “revolted” or “defected”. Perhaps they realized how wrong their choice was when they were killed by the Chinese Communist Party.
The “Regulations on Public Security Work in the Cultural Revolution” (commonly known as the Six Articles of Public Security), which was publicly posted in 1967, reveals the terms of the policy that had been in place for 17 years before the Cultural Revolution, that is, the criteria for “counterrevolution”. In addition to the existing criminals, all reactionary party cadres (above members of the Kuomintang and the Three Youths League), political (above the chief of security), military (above the company commander), police (above the sergeant), gendarmerie (above the gendarmerie), and special (special agent) were treated as historical counterrevolutionaries, even though they had not committed any criminal acts. In other words, from the central government to the grassroots, the policy in hand was to pursue all Kuomintang central, provincial, municipal, county, township, and security party, government, and military personnel at all levels, except for a very small number of United Front figures, almost all of whom were arrested and sentenced, executed, rehabilitated through labor, imprisoned, and controlled respectively. How many of these people met with misfortune?
Mao Zedong said that 700,000 people were killed, 1.2 million were imprisoned, and 1.2 million were put under control. Mao’s statement is naturally based on a report made by Xu Zirong, vice minister of public security, in January 1954.
According to Xu’s report at the Time, more than 2.62 million people had been arrested since the crackdown, of whom “712,000 counter-revolutionaries were killed, 1.29 million were imprisoned, and more than 1.2 million were put under control. After their arrest, more than 380,000 were released for education because their crimes were not serious.” With the number of 712,000 executed, it reached the level of 1.24 thousandth of the country’s 500 million population at that time. Considering the underreporting that occurred in various places at the time, it is likely that the actual number of executions nationwide was actually much higher than the 712,000 figure.
In the 1980s, the Chinese Communist Party finally partially admitted the fact that “some of the people who were suppressed at the time also defected to the uprising. However, since these figures were only compiled by the CCP, which is still in power today, the exact number of people who were unjustly killed, wrongfully convicted and maimed remains an unsolved mystery.
Launching the “Five Anti-vice” Campaign to Eliminate Entrepreneurs
After 1949, while the Communist Party carried out land reform in the countryside to eliminate “landlords” and suppress rebellion, it also began an industrial and commercial reform campaign in the cities to eliminate the “bourgeoisie” in urban and rural areas in the name of the “five rebellions”. “In January 1952, the CCP proposed the “Five Anti-Communist Campaigns” against entrepreneurs, namely, “against bribery, tax evasion, theft of state property, jerry-building, and theft of economic information. “In early February, the five anti-corruption campaigns were launched in all major cities and soon set off the climax of the transformation of the “bourgeoisie”, with Shanghai as the first target, because Shanghai, as a commercial center, had many entrepreneurs.
Within a few years, through various methods of coercion, the Communist Party abolished all national entrepreneurs and private ownership in the country, and brought business under the ownership of the Communist Party. It can be said that the “Five Rebellions” were actually robbing the entrepreneurs of their money and even killing them.
It is still a mystery as to how many entrepreneurs committed suicide in Shanghai during the “Five Rebellions” campaign. According to the “Facts of Historical Political Campaigns since the Founding of the People’s Republic” compiled by the Party History Research Office of the CPC Central Committee and four other departments in 1996, more than 323,100 people were arrested and more than 280 people committed suicide or disappeared during the “Three Anti-Violations” campaign. Until the real figures are disclosed, this is probably for reference only.
The Kuomintang generals and soldiers, as well as entrepreneurs and ordinary people, who believed in the promises of the Chinese Communist Party’s “Eight Rules of Engagement”, obviously fell for a big trap, and in return, the Chinese Communist Party killed, humiliated and persecuted them, which was determined by the murderous nature of the Chinese Communist Party. Numerous disclosed histories have repeatedly told us never to believe any promises made by the CCP, because it is so full of lies that its history is a history of lies, in other words, lies are the pillars that maintain the CCP’s rule. However, there is no doubt that a regime built on lies will only end in one way: collapse.