The last patriot to die from delusions of grandeur

The man of letters who lost his Life this Time due to delusion was also a loyal and patriotic man, surnamed He.

He had a better name: He Shisheng.

Read the other way around, it is also full of positive energy.

And the book that killed him is called “Dukoku Sei”. The name of the person and the name of the book are a match made in heaven, but unfortunately, the sky does not allow him.

He Shisheng, the identity of Hunan Leiyang county school augmentation student, at the time of the crime was 69 years old. The so-called “county school augmentation”, is in addition to the quota of additional students (Xiucai), the information says he “in the seventeenth year of the Qianlong school, forty-six years to sue to the top of the clothes.

“to the top of the clothes” for short “to the top”, is part of the Manchu imperial examinations policy, mainly for repeatedly failed and sick students and the development of a policy of consolation. According to the provisions, “where the body is suffering from serious illness, or enrollment has been thirty years or seventy years old, the court allows them to wear the clothes and tops to mark their merit level for life”; but there is a restriction, is once the tops enjoy the clothes, then no longer participate in the annual examination and examination, nor allowed to participate in the village examinations. (According to He Xiaoyan, “A trial discussion of the “suing for clothes” policy in the Qing dynasty imperial examination system”)

In fact, the “suing the top” is also equal to announcing that your path of merit has reached the top.

In other words, after He Shisheng was added to the county school to become a student, more than 30 years repeatedly failed, accept the reality that no longer participate in the imperial examinations, and get the “top” treatment. It is equivalent to the examination of the public 30 years has not been able to test, the state gave a consolation nature of the “honorary civil servant” title.

The Qing Dynasty, like He Shisheng such a literati should be a lot of, most also chose to resign themselves to fate, after all, the honorary title is also honor, better than nothing, engraved into the tombstone, is also enough to honor the ancestors.

However, “learn the art of literature and martial arts, goods and The Emperor‘s Family“, for thousands of years is the ultimate goal of the Chinese literati, especially those who are confident that “literature and martial arts” has been “learned”, only to get Honorary title, not to the emperor’s family as a lackey, is always the biggest regret in life.

There are regrets, there are complaints; there are complaints, will write out. At the time of the case, the Hunan governor Pu Lin wrote a memorial inside, He Shisheng characterized as “negative and wildly absurd, claiming to have extraordinary aspirations, because of the unsuccessful attempt to achieve the title of science, and often resentful”, is not far from it.

After the “top” of the Qianlong 46 years, He Shisheng helped people to write pleadings to make ends meet, while focusing on writing the “Duk Guo Ce”, until the case of the Qianlong 53 years (1788), this book, he wrote a full eight years.

What was written in the book?

The Hunan governor Pu Lin believes that “the book refers to the hatred of donor officials, so the matter of opening donations repeatedly rebuked, reckless barking”; “rebuking officials, delusional discussion of the imperial government, the text is complex, statements are fragmented, and its apparently rebellious and reckless barking are not enough”.

Donation, is to spend money to buy officials. This system has been in place since the Qin and Han dynasties, generally when the state treasury is broke or the court suddenly needs a large amount of money (such as to wage war or engage in large-scale face-saving projects), it sells officials to increase revenue. After the Qin and Han dynasties, the donation system basically did not stop, the Manchu Qing dynasty into the country, think the Han people this system is too good to be true, come to money quickly, but also accepted wholesale. So, donations became a shortcut for rich people to become officials.

Because repeatedly failed to test, He Shisheng very despise those who use money to buy officials, think those people are not on the strength of up, the number of people, blocked the “right way” of the students, with his own confession, “I have been hating since childhood donations a way to prevent the scholar to enter “.

Of course, like other literati who suffered similarly, He Shisheng wrote the book not only because of hatred, but also because of love – love for the country, love for the court, love for the emperor, so he also “wanted to go to the capital to present the book after it was completed, so as to reward the official position to invite glory and favor.

However, to write out the hatred, in the eyes of the court officials, is not only delusional, or “reckless barking”. These four words are written in the Hunan governor’s memo – such a stinky literati, simply mad dogs.

The problem is, when the case was committed, “Dukoku Sze” had not yet been published.

Not published is not no book number or something (at that time, although the text is strictly prohibited, the book also does not use the book number), according to He Shisheng confession, “the book because of the leisure time randomly save together”, and he continued to delete and change, so the delay in publication.

In other words, “Duk Guk Ce” is at most an unpublished private notebook.

How could it be discovered if it was not published?

The Hunan governor’s memorial has a simple explanation.

According to the report of Yan Guangju, the magistrate of Leiyang County, He Shisheng, a student of the county, was living in the ancestral hall of the county and wrote words on behalf of others, so the magistrate was informed to go and get it, and a copy of “Duk Guo Ce” was found in the offender’s apartment ……

The “lyricist” is not writing lyrics for people, but writing lawsuits. This should be his means of livelihood, but this is also the most scandalous for the government. So, He Shisheng case, first of all, not because of his book, just for people litigation angered the magistrate, the surface can not catch you, but similar to this like to defend people’s rights of the literati, the Home absolutely hidden forbidden text, a search, indeed.

Qianlong Emperor, this is a big case special case. Hunan governor Pu Lin felt that “this case is about the writings of the rebellious book, the situation is significant”, first “the offender will be 17 mouth captured, but the offender’s nephew He Jiajin a foreign trade has not returned, and now strictly take”; and “investigate the proofreaders to determine the spread of people as much as possible The first is “the offender’s 17 mouths, but the offender’s nephew, He Jiajin, a foreign trade has not returned, now strictly taken”; and “investigate the proofreaders to determine the spread of all the people, do not let indulge in leakage.

Two words: linked.

Found a book, first caught his family 17 mouth, but also to investigate those who helped him proofread, read, disseminated, one does not spare.

The usual operation.

Now comes the question, “He Shisheng “Dukoku Ce” case” is the “Qing dynasty text prison file” recorded the last text prison case of the Qianlong dynasty, so many similar cases occurred before, heads rolled, He Shisheng is not aware of, or know must be sent to the head of the knife?

Neither. In fact, he also knew that his book was “too strongly worded, and he was afraid that it would hinder the submission”, but in the 22nd year of the Qianlong era, also in Hunan, there was a case in which a literary man named Chen Anzhao published two books, and the Hunan governor at that time also submitted a petition according to the rebellious book, which was later approved by the Qianlong emperor as “not a betrayal “Later on, Qianlong gave the imperial approval to release Chen Anzhao. When this happened, “everyone in the province recited that His Majesty was lenient, and I heard this at that time and took it to heart”.

In other words, Qianlong’s leniency in dealing with the incident 30 years ago greatly encouraged He Shisheng and made him feel that “His Majesty was lenient” and that his book was “intended to strengthen the country”. The book is not a “deluded discussion of the imperial government”.

God forbid, when a literary person makes a fool of himself, even pigs and dogs laugh. From the 22nd year of the Qianlong era to the 53rd year of the Qianlong era, it was a period of high incidence of writing prisons, and there were dozens of cases (also in Hunan) recorded in the “Qing Dynasty Writing Jail File” alone, involving countless people.

After being arrested, he regretted or not, it is not known, only know that under severe punishment, he also confessed: “because of the whining in my heart so that the language involved in falsehood, now I was instructed article by article, I know that the loss of heart, deserve to die, just ask for punishment is.”

The Manchu torture was much more horrible than the ones in the movies and dramas.

Of course, the officials will not forgive him, the Hunan governor, together with the governor of Huguang, Hunan, and other local officials after the trial, in the report to give a recommendation on the sentence.

Check the law contains the treasonous person lingering death, the main offender’s sons and grandsons, brothers and brothers’ sons over 16 years old are beheaded, 15 below and the main offender’s wife if the son’s wife was given to the meritorious family as a slave, the main offender’s property into the official, knowing the hidden person beheaded, etc., He Shisheng according to the law of treason lingering death, but still the head of the offender’s place of origin lord show ……

He Shisheng’s son, grandson, brother, nephew, etc., “although the hearing are unaware, but is the son and grandson of the main offender and his own brother and nephew, the law should be the edge of sitting, all of them are more than 16 years old …… should be in accordance with the law to be beheaded, first piercing words”.

The hair and bones horror.

Qianlong received the folding, as usual, or to go through the procedure of hypocrisy, Zhu approved: “the university, nine secretaries will be Law Division to approve the speedy presentation, Qin this.”

Such cases, the university, the nine secretaries are never just a rubber stamp, a few days later to give “should be completed as the fuzzy played for”, that is, approved the main offender lynching, children and grandchildren, brothers and nephews more than 16 years old beheaded, underage punished as slaves.

In this approval fold, the co-signers of the university and the nine secretaries are more than 40 people, including the more familiar university scholar Heshen, co-administering university scholar Fu Kangan, Liu Yong, as well as the Minister of Rites Ji Xiaolan.

The final decision, of course, fell into the hands of Qianlong. So, he really as He Shisheng wish, and a grace forgiveness: “the first thought of the prisoner because of the loss of ambition field house, poor and bored, picking up rumors, private copy, to express their depression, and apparently rebellious rebellion is still between, He Shisheng from the lenient ……”

He was so poor and bored that he wrote some social rumors into the book to express his depression, which is different from the malicious and rebellious, so he was lenient.

How to be lenient? The same as Chen Anzhao 30 years ago, acquitted?

You are thinking too much, “leniency is changed to beheading”. As for his children, grandchildren, brothers, sons and nephews, forget about it, anyway, they are uneducated, can not read, and will not be pursued.

Indeed, it is also lenient, the same death, a beheading than a thousand cuts, that is really much more merciful. Besides, there is no need to implicate, how many innocent people’s heads can be saved.

In this enlightenment bull, Qianlong also responded to He Shisheng’s dissatisfaction with the donation system, he said, I have reigned for 53 years, “universal exemption of the world’s land three times”, “exempt from the Food twice”, a natural disaster immediately allocate funds for disaster relief. And donations system, “since the cessation of more than ten years long”.

Qianlong indeed more than ten years ago decreed that “the permanent suspension of the donation example”, so he also justified himself in the bull: “If I want to gather money, the two donations do not match the number of a general exemption, is also known to all, there is no Chenzuo stop donation refused not to accept the matter?”

If I want money, the country twice donated the money collected, but not a national tax exemption, this is a common knowledge, how can be so unconscionable delusion.

Therefore, at the end of the decree, Qianlong specially emphasized: “and the governor will give this decree to the offender to read and then carry out justice, so that they know that sins are made by themselves and I give mercy outside of the law, not because the offender’s words involved in the crime of violation and their sons and grandsons, the offender should also bow down and die without complaint.”

The Hunan governor was ordered to give this decree to He Shisheng and then behead him, so that he would know that I was really merciful and died without complaint.

The emperor is a good emperor, where can you find such a good emperor?